Week Six Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3330 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Alley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Contemporary Views of LTM Three types of memory system 1. Semantic memory - stores knowledge about the world decontextualized (independent of time or place) how do you know that zebras have stripes? 2. Episodic memory - memory of experiences in subjective space and time; permits a personal past. long term memory of temporarily unique events you remember your 21st birthday better than what you had for lunch last week Autobiographical memory - "specific, personal, long-lasting", usually significant to self; forms your personal life history; late developing (“childhood amnesia”). o not to be confused with stuff your parents told you that you don’t really remember Flashbulb Memories - extremely vivid episodic memories, usually attached to a significant, surprising, or emotional event 3. Procedural memory - knowing how to... (vs. knowing that) · sometimes implicit (tacit; nondeclarative) · can function without episodic memory how to ice skate (procedural) vs. remembering when you learned how to ice skate (episodic) vs. knowing ice is frozen water (semantic) What makes memories durable? some say repetition but this isn’t always the best (could you describe a penny?) o trying to remember what’s on the penny is a recall test which is hard o recall is much harder than recognition o clearly repetition is not enough to make this stick permanently in memory o we can account for this with the Level Processing Theory Levels of Processing Theory - level or depth of processing (encoding) is the main factor governing storage and retrieval; LTM is not simply a ~permanent storage bin. basically what you do with memory after you get it determines whether or not you keep it long term memory is not simply a “permanent” storage bin “Trace persistence is a function of depth of analysis, with deeper levels of analysis associated with more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger traces. … it is advantageous to store the products of such deep analyses, but there is usually no need to store the products of preliminary analyses.” (Craik & Lockhart, 1972, p. 675) Memory trace is a byproduct of perceptual/cognitive processing: · superficial processing à short-lived traces · deep (semantic) processing à most durable traces the deeper levels of processing are the ones who make the longest lasting memories memory is a byproduct of perceptual/cognitive processing superficial processing: leads to poor, short lived memory deep, semantic processing: more durable memories effort makes no difference Evidence for Levels of Processing Theory: 1) Maintenance vs. Elaborative rehearsal [mere repetition (maintenance)] ß//à [level of learning] maintenance (mere repetition) vs. elaborative rehearsal repeating something over and over does not mean it will stick around long (this is maintenance or mere repetition) elaborative means you elaborate on it (you see and 803 phone number and think ‘that’s an SC phone number’) mere repetition does not work because all they’re doing is keeping the information in short term memory 2) Repeated exposure may not à retention of info. ex.1 memory for c_____ ex.2 memory for telephone keypad 0 of 50 Britons able to reproduce pattern of #'s and letters on a British phone dial. (Morton, 1967) repeated exposure may not lead to retention of memory (penny example) e.g. memory for a telephone keypad (registering which button goes with each letter) o in a british study, 0 of 50 adults could put all the numbers and letters on a blank phonepad 3) Incidental Learning – seen in results of ________________ memory tests for differently encoded material. example: upper or lower case print? < rhyme? < fit sentence? (Craik & Tulving, 1975) depth of processing is more important that processing time. incidental learning is non-intentional learning results of surprise memory tests for differently encoded material: the deeper the processing required, the more they remembered e.g. upper or lowercase < rhyme < putting it in a sentence e.g. counting consonants vs. categories (you remember more of the category word because it requires a deeper level of processing) People wondered if this wasn’t a thing of time (it’s faster to note if something is upper case than to put it in a sentence). But this isn’t true. They did structural tests where they made consonants Cs and vowels Bs (brain = CCBBC). they also did a semantic tast asking whether the word fit in a sentence that’s given. The structural task took longer than the semantic task but we remembered the semantic task afterwards better
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