PSY 456; Week 4 Notes (2/9-2/11)
PSY 456; Week 4 Notes (2/9-2/11) PSY 456
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 456 at Colorado State University taught by Amberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Sensation & Perception in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
● Exploration of Spatial Organization ● Electronic Map on V1 ○ retinotopic map is an electron map of the retina on the cortex ○ cortical magnification; a small area of the fovea is represented by a large area on the visual cortex ● Brain Imaging Techniques ○ PET ■ uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for disease in the body ○ fMRI ■ uses MRI technology to measure brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow ● Cortex Columns ○ Cortical Magnification Factor ■ fovea has more cortical space than expected ○ Visual Cortex ■ Location columns ● receptive fields at same location on retina are in a column ● similar abilities next to each other ● contains orientation columns ■ Orientation columns ● neurons within columns fire maximally to the same orientation of stimuli ● adjacent columns change preference in an orderly fashion ● 1 mm across the cortex represents entire range of orientation ■ Ocular Dominance Columns ● neurons in the cortex respond preferentially to one eye ● How do Feature Detectors Respond to a Scene? ○ Tiling; columns working together to cover the entire visual field ■ there are still gaps in vision that brain fills in ● Streams for Information ○ Lesioning (cuts) or Ablation (removal) Experiments ■ animal trained to indicate perceptual capacities, part of brain is removed/destroyed, retrained ■ Results ● reveal which portions of the brain are responsible for specific behaviors ■ Ungerleider and Mishkin ● Object Discrimination Problem ○ monkey shown object, presented 2 objects. reward for detecting target object ● Landmark Discrimination Problem ○ monkey trained to pick the food well next to cylinder ● ablated part of the parietal lobe or part of temporal lobe ● Results ○ removal of temporal lobe resulted in problems with object discrimination ■ what/v entral pathway ○ removal of parietal lobe resulted in problems with landmark discrimination ■ where/ dorsal pathway ○ Both Pathways ■ originate in retina and continue through 2 types of ganglion cells in LGN ■ have some interconnections ■ receive feedback from higher brain areas ○ Where May be How Pathway ■ dorsal stream shows function for both location and for appropriate action ■ evidence from Neuropsychology ● double dissociations; two function involve different mechanism and operate independently ○ Patient D.F. ■ damage to ventral pathway ■ not able to match orientation, but able to orient card in slot ■ other patients show opposite ■ evidence shows double dissociation between ventral and dorsal pathways ● Behavior of People Without Brain Damage ○ Ganel ■ demonstrate a separation of perception and action in nonbrain damage subjects ■ thought one line was larger than other but fingers showed sam ● Modularity ○ module; a brain structure that processes information about specific stimuli ○ Rolls ■ measured the response neurons in the Inferotemporal Cortex of monkeys ● responds best to faces ● little response to nonface stimuli ■ temporal lobe damage in humans results in prosopagnosia ○ Evidence from fMRI shows ■ fusiform face area (FFA) responds best to faces ■ parahippocampal place area (PPA) responds best to general spatial layout ■ extrastriate body area (EBA) responds best to pictures of full bodies and body parts ● Where Vision Meets Memory ○ Medial Temporal Lobe structures are extremely important in memory ■ H.M. ● damaged hippocampus ● Experience and Neural Responding ○ experiencedependent plasticity in humans ■ brain imaging experiments show areas that respond best to letters and words ■ fMRI experiments show that training results in areas of the FFA responding best to ● greeble stimuli ● expertise cars, birds, dogs
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