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PSY 456; Week 4 Notes (2/9-2/11)

by: Brianna

PSY 456; Week 4 Notes (2/9-2/11) PSY 456

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Psychlogy > PSY 456 > PSY 456 Week 4 Notes 2 9 2 11
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Notes from Chapter 4 and Lecture (2/9-2/11)
Sensation & Perception
Class Notes
Psychology, sensation and perception
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 456 at Colorado State University taught by Amberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Sensation & Perception in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
● Exploration of Spatial Organization ● Electronic Map on V1 ○ retinotopic map is an electron map of the retina on  the cortex ○ cortical magnification; a small area of the fovea is  represented by a large area on the visual cortex ● Brain Imaging Techniques ○ PET ■ uses a radioactive substance called  a tracer to look for disease in the body ○ fMRI ■ uses MRI technology to measure  brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow ● Cortex Columns ○ Cortical Magnification Factor ■ fovea has more cortical space than expected ○ Visual Cortex ■ Location columns ● receptive fields at same location on  retina are in a column ● similar abilities next to each other ● contains orientation columns ■ Orientation columns ● neurons within columns fire  maximally to the same orientation of stimuli ● adjacent columns change  preference in an orderly fashion ● 1 mm across the cortex represents  entire range of orientation ■ Ocular Dominance Columns ● neurons in the cortex respond  preferentially to one eye ● How do Feature Detectors Respond to a Scene? ○ Tiling; columns working together to cover the entire visual field ■ there are still gaps in vision that brain fills in ● Streams for Information ○ Lesioning (cuts) or Ablation (removal) Experiments ■ animal trained to indicate perceptual capacities,  part of brain is removed/destroyed, retrained ■ Results ● reveal which portions of the brain  are responsible for specific behaviors ■ Ungerleider and Mishkin ● Object Discrimination Problem ○ monkey shown  object, presented 2 objects. reward for detecting target  object ● Landmark Discrimination Problem ○ monkey trained to  pick the food well next to cylinder ● ablated part of the parietal lobe or  part of temporal lobe ● Results ○ removal of temporal  lobe resulted in problems with object discrimination ■ what/v entral pathway ○ removal of parietal  lobe resulted in problems with landmark discrimination ■ where/ dorsal pathway ○ Both Pathways ■ originate in retina and continue through 2 types of  ganglion cells in LGN ■ have some interconnections ■ receive feedback from higher brain areas ○ Where May be How Pathway ■ dorsal stream shows function for both location and  for appropriate action ■ evidence from Neuropsychology ● double dissociations; two function  involve different mechanism and operate independently ○ Patient D.F. ■ damage to ventral pathway ■ not able to match orientation, but able to orient card in slot ■ other patients show opposite ■ evidence shows double dissociation between  ventral and dorsal pathways ● Behavior of People Without Brain Damage ○ Ganel ■ demonstrate a separation of perception and action  in non­brain damage subjects ■ thought one line was larger than other but fingers  showed sam ● Modularity ○ module; a brain structure that processes information about  specific stimuli ○ Rolls ■ measured the response neurons in the  Inferotemporal Cortex of monkeys ● responds best to faces ● little response to non­face stimuli ■ temporal lobe damage in humans results in  prosopagnosia ○ Evidence from fMRI shows ■ fusiform face area (FFA) responds best to faces ■ parahippocampal place area (PPA) responds best  to general spatial layout ■ extrastriate body area (EBA) responds best to  pictures of full bodies and body parts ● Where Vision Meets Memory ○ Medial Temporal Lobe structures are extremely important in  memory ■ H.M. ● damaged hippocampus ● Experience and Neural Responding ○ experience­dependent plasticity in humans ■ brain imaging experiments show areas that  respond best to letters and words ■ fMRI experiments show that training results in  areas of the FFA responding best to ● greeble stimuli ● expertise­ cars, birds, dogs


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