Week 4 Class notes for Aigner's Psyc 400 Class
Week 4 Class notes for Aigner's Psyc 400 Class Psyc 400
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Riley on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 400 at Humboldt State University taught by Carrie Aigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Week Four: There was an Exam on Tuesday, February 9th Thursday, 11 February 2015 Announcements: • Research Paper o February 18 = Topic/reference list is due § Only need a topic/title (Not a full proposal) § Also need a list of references § Get your topic as specific as you can o Due by 5pm on Thursday, April 21. Submit the paper electronically on Moodle o 6-8 pages o Biopsycosocial oriented § Keep all three aspects integrated in the paper o Need to Use Peer Review Articles o Formatting § Summary and critical analysis • “Lit Review” • First 4-5 pages • 10 Peer Reviewed Articles § Translation • Last 2-3 pages • Translating the research into actionable plan • How will the research be used? § Basically follow the outline on Moodle § Does not need to be in APA • Use the citation of your discipline if that’s what you’re most comfortable with • Link topic to life expectancy o How will your plan lead to a longer life expectancy Notes start on next page… Defining and Measuring Stress I. Nervous System a. Nervous system = made of billions of neurons i. Central = brain and spinal cord ii. Peripheral = all other neurons 1. Somatic nervous system = skin and voluntary muscles (arm, leg, face muscles) 2. Autonomic nervous system = internal, involuntary organs (heart, digestive tract), STRESS a. Sympathetic = mobilizes body’s resources in time of stress (increase respiration, heart rate, sweat glands) STRESS b. Parasympathetic = promotes realization under normal, non stressful conditions iii. Neuroendocrine System 1. Pituitary Gland = a. Located in the brain, b. Releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) c. Stimulates adrenal gland to release cortisol 2. Adrenal Glands = produces hormones including cortisol and epinephrine (Adrenaline) a. Often used as markers of stress 3. Neuroendocrine Function and Divorce a. Neuroendocrine function during the firs year of marriage was related to divorce 10 years later b. The couples who went on to get divorced had 34% greater epinephrine levels during their first year of marriage than the couples who stayed married i. Why? 1. Stress could have already existed before marriage 2. Personality factors may have contributed to preexisting stress 3. Stress from the initial planning of the wedding 4. The first year is stressful and may have been too much stress for those couples. 4. The Stress Response a. Perception of Stress i. Ex: Ancestors encountering a wild animal in the wild b. Activation of sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system i. Adrenal and Pituitary Activation 1. “Fight or Flight Response” ii. Release of cortisol. Epinephrine, etc. iii. Increased heart rate iv. Sweat gland activation v. Increased respiratory rate 5. Allostasis and Allostatic Load a. Allostasis i. Maintaining an appropriate level of sympathetic activation under changing circumstances (Smooth transition between parasympathetic and sympathetic systems) b. Allostatic Load i. Prolonging activation of the responses if sympathetic activation is maladaptive and can lead to health problems ii. Measurement: 1. Multiple biomarkers tests for hormonal stress markers, etc. a. Blood pressure b. Blood c. Urine iii. Research EX: 1. Published 2008 2. 1,313 Men and Women age 70-79 3. Findings: a. Higher allostatic load at baseline associated with i. Increased risk for 7-year mortality ii. Increase cardiovascular disease iii. Controlled for SES and baseline health II. Chronic Stress a. Responding to an emergency with sympathetic activation is normal, but what happens when the stressor doesn’t go away b. Stress Ages us in terms of disease and shorter lifespan c. Seyle’s General Adaption Syndrome described how we respond to long term stressors i. Some people do not come down to homeostasis after stressors occur 1. When a stressor hits, you spike into alarm 2. Those with problems with stress will go through a stage of resistance 3. Eventually you will hit an exhaustion stage where you give out in some way a. Emotional Breakdown b. Get sick c. ETC. 4. You can cycle through these stages numerous times throughout life ii. Applying The General Adaption Syndrome 1. Marcia is 42 a. Single mother of 2 children b. Recently lost her job 2. Immediate stress reaction: a. After hearing the news, Marcia had an immediate stress response b. Her body flooded with cortisol c. Her heart rate increased d. She started Sweating 3. Resistance: 2 weeks later Marcia is still without a job a. Running out of money b. Gives an outward appearance of normality to kids c. Inside, her body is a mess 4. Exhaustion: 3 months later Marcia is still without a job a. Her body is exhausted from being under constant stress b. She becomes more susceptible to illness and disease iii. Critique of Selye’s Model 1. Largely replaced by concepts of allostasis and allostatic load a. Which take into account many stressors and balances ****Discussion Point**** What are the major drawbacks of Selye’s Model? o Doesn’t take into predisposed stress balance o Effects of stress of mother during gestation o Individual differences § Different perceptions of stress § Different Support systems § Coping differences d. Lazarus and Folkman Model of Stress i. Primary appraisal = initial appraisal of an even as positive, neutral, or stressful ii. Secondary appraisal = appraisal of ability to cope with potential stressor 1. “Can I handle this?” iii. The perception of stressor is key to this model iv. Ex: Marcia: 42 years old Megan: 42 years old Single Mother of Two Married Mother of 2 Low SES High SES Primary Appraisal “This is awful!” “This is awful!” Secondary Appraisal “I can’t pay bill without “We can rely on savings my job. What will I do?” for now. This is doable.” Result Big Impact on health Little impact on health and wellbeing and wellbeing Measuring Stress I. Physiological Measures a. Heart Rate b. Blood Pressure c. Respiration Rate d. Cortisol and Epinephrine i. Blood or Urine Test e. Advantage: i. Reliable 1. Quantifiable f. Disadvantage: i. Can create stress themselves II. Self-Report a. Life Events Scale for Students i. Example chart: 1. Measured over a period of 4 months 2. Add them up and get a total stress score 3. Recommended to keep it under 300 ii. What have we learned from Lazarus’s model that might argue against using a cutoff like this? iii. Items emphasize CHANGE iv. Even positive event in our life can produce stress v. Change often creates friction in our social lives, even if the change is positive The Stress of Poverty I. Stress and Disease a. Diabetes: i. Stress raises blood glucose levels b. Cardiovascular Disease: i. Stress leads to high BP and elevated risk for CVD c. Cancer: i. Stress is linked to inflammation and tumor growth d. Substance Abuse: i. Stress is linked to higher levels of smoking and alcohol use II. How does where you are born influence your stress level? a. Violence and trauma i. 83% of inner city youth reported experiences 1 or more traumatic events b. Anxiety about money, shelter, for c. Racism and minority stress i. Ex: Race and infant mortality rates d. Lack of access to safe outdoor spaces to play and relax e. Lack of control and feelings of hopelessness i. Everyday experience for some people f. Effects accumulate in the body over time and can lead to chronic disease
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