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Class Note for CHEM 1332 with Professor Bott at UH 5


Class Note for CHEM 1332 with Professor Bott at UH 5

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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Houston taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/15
Review Notes Chapter 12 SOLUTIONS homogeneous mixtures consist of SOLUTE and SOLVENT ENERGETICS To make a solution must BREAK interparticles forces in both solute and solvent MAKE new interparticle forces BROKEN ONES CANNOT BE MUCH STRONGER THAN MADE ONES otherwise solution will not form Always get increase in entropy can have both exo and endothermic FORCES Usual ones ionic Hbonding dipoledipole London dispersion when mixing substances that have SAME type of forces When different Solute and Solvent Solution Comments IONIC HBonding or DIPOLEDIPOLE Iondipole Ionic substances water IONIC LONDON DISPERSION Ioninduced dipole Rarely happen DIPOLEDIPOLE London Dipoleinduced dipole SOLUTIONS AND EQUILIBRIUM Unsaturated can add more solute Saturated maximum amount of solute usually in contact with undissolved solute Supersaturated too much solute V unstable Temperature If making solution is endothermic inc temp inc solubility If making solution is exothermic inc temp dec solubility Pressure affects solubility of gases Henry s Law solubility constant kH x pressure QUANTIFYING SOLUTIONS molarity moles solute liters of solution molality moles solute kg of solvent moles fraction ofX moles ofX total moles mass ofX mass ofX total mass X 100 COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES Depend upon amount of solute concentration Vapor Pressure DECREASES with increasing concentration Raoult39s Law vapor press of solution vapor press of solvent X mole fraction of solvent Boiling Point INCREASES with increasing concentration Each solvent has constant Kbp CHANGE in boiling point Apr Kbp X molality of solution boiling point of solution boiling point of solvent change in boiling point Freezing Point DECREASES with increasing concentration Each solvent has constant Kfp CHANGE in freezing point ATfp Kfp X molality of solution freezing point of solution freezing point of solvent change in freezing point Molar Mass of Solute from Point change Molar mass grams solute X k AT X kg solvent ALL OF ABOVE DEPEND UPON NUMBER OF PARTICLES IONIC SPLIT UP INCREASING NUMBER OF PARTICLES SO INCREASE EFFECT Osmotic Pressure Osmosis is ow of solvent from less concentrated solution to more concentrated one Osmotic pressure is pressure that must be applied to stop process H molarity X R X T R 0082 T in Kelvin Molar Mass ofSolutefrom Osmotic Pressure Molar mass grams solute X R X T V X H


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