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PS 201 Week 3 Notes

by: Shelsey Hall

PS 201 Week 3 Notes PS 201

Shelsey Hall

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These notes cover the 3rd week of PS 201
Intro American Government and Politics
Anne Izod
Class Notes
political science
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelsey Hall on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PS 201 at North Carolina State University taught by Anne Izod in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro American Government and Politics in Political Science at North Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
WEEK THREE: 1/26: Chapter 3 Quiz, Chapter 3 Notes, Failures of Federalism Video FEDERALISM The Federal System: divided constitutional authority between federal and states Federals as a compromise seeking balance between:  1.) Need to preserve the states 2.) Need for national government with direct authority over the people THE ARGUMENT FOR FEDERALISM Fix The Articles’ Defects, Strengthen the Union  National government without power to tax or regulate commerce   Federalists: strong national government  Anti­Federalists: weaker national government Protect Liberty Moderate the power of the national government THE POWERS OF THE NATION AND STATES The Powers of the National Government ­    Enumerated or Expressed Powers 17 Powers­ Secure Defense, stabilize commerce ­Article 1 of the Constitution Maintain Military, declare war, establish postal system, set standards for weights and measures, protect  copyrights and patents The Powers of the State Governments  Reserved Powers  10th Amendment­ all states’ powers are provided Oversight of local matter  Public education, safety  Establish local governments, set up schools, regulate state commerce, make regulations for  marriage, establish and regulate corporations SHARED POWERS Collect taxes, establish courts, regulate interstate commerce, regulate banks, borrow money, general  welfare, punish criminals FEDERALISM IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ­Three eras of Federalism #1: An Indestructible Union (1789­1865) ­Ratification until end of civil war ­Nationalist view and McCullough v. Maryland: when national and state law conflicted­ national law  paramounted #2: Dual Federalism (1865­1937) ­Precise division between national and state authority is possible and desirable ­14th amendment ­Plessy v. Ferguson undermined the 14th amendment ­Judicial Protection of Business­ Supreme COurt limited national power and repeatedly ruled in favor of  private sector and large business interests ­Commerce Clause and the Court’s Creative Constitutional Interpretation ­National authority regains traction: FDR, NIRA #3: Contemporary Federalism (1937­ Present Day) ­Interdependency and intergovernmental relations ­Cooperation Federalism­ national, state, and local governments sharing program funding, administration, and determination ex. Medicaid (jointly funded­ rules set by federal, states can add more rules FEDERALISM TODAY Government Revenues and Intergovernmental Relations ­Federal government’s expanded policy role ­ Interdependent policy areas (change here­ affects there) ­ Federal government’s superion taxing capacity Fiscal Federalism ­Federal dollars­ state programs ­Grants­in­aid (cash money)     ­categorical (specific needs)     ­Block grants (general use) Devolution and the “new federalism” ­partial shifts of power from national government to the states and localities ­after the 60s­ there was a decline in support for federal domestic spending ­unfunded mandates: federal programs that require action by states or localities but provide no or  insufficient funds to pay for it­ such as handicap accessibility for buildings ­The Republican Revolution ­1996 Welfare Reform Act: temporary aid for needy families ­No Child Left Behind Video: Katrina, Failures of Federalism 1/28: Current Events Group #3, Pew,  Pew (Beyond Red vs. Blue: The Political Typology) ­Partisan polarization ­Difficulty getting to middle ground ­ why is this problematic? Typology ­Sorting into groups based on their attitudes and values, not their partisan labels Electoral Implications ­Steadfast Conservatives/Business Conservatives on right ­Solid Liberals on left ­Middle groups are less predictable POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION The Nature of Public Opinion: The public is the voting mass. Political SOcialization: What is political socialization? Lifelong process, cumulative, reinforces Socializing Agents: Primary­ family, school, religious institutions; Secondary: peers, mass media. leaders, major events (ex. 9/11) How Americans think politically: Party ID­ emotional loyalty to a political party POLITICAL IDEOLOGY Political Ideology: A “general belief about the role and purpose of government” Two dimensions of the matrix: ­Economic principles: liberal or conservative (Government interventions on Social/Economic) Ideological thinking: Liberal(L/H), Conservative(H/L),  Populists(H/H), Libertarians (L/L) Groups/Self­identifying: Recognize threats and opportunities to self interests Group thinking: religion, economic class, region, race/ethnicity, gender, age/generations, multiple group  memberships (cross cutting) THE MEASUREMENT OF PUBLIC OPINION Does public opinions actively influence the decision­making of politicians and public officials? Requires indirect measurement: Elections, letters to the editor, protests, are all vastly limited; Opinion  polls or surveys become the dominant method PUBLIC OPINION POLLS Primary method of estimating public Public opinion based on use of sampling (Samples­ estimation of total population’s views) Sample  selection a critical issue Populations: citizens of a nation, state, city, or group Probability Sampling: A jar of a million marbles On each pull, the probability of a red marble is 50­50 Pull a large sample Random selection and SIZE of sample is critical Sampling error reflects accuracy of the poll PROBLEMS WITH PUBLIC OPINION POLLS Sampling Error: Common source­ all people in population do not have a chance to be included in  sample (ex. when they only use landlines) Non­opinions: “Sure, I totally know about...:”, Deception, Withholding opinion, Lying Poor ordering, wording, and or framing of questions Despite error and limits, polls are still primary way to gauge public opinion PUBLIC OPINION’S INFLUENCE ON POLICY What is the impact of public opinion on policies? No agreement on how it DOES or how it SHOULD Limits on the Public’s influence: Lack of knowledge related to complex policy arenas Public opinion can set the boundaries of acceptable­ not every policy gets people fired up­ giving  politicians latitude Policy and public opinion­ chicken or the egg? Articles: Moore and Zengerle According to Zengerle, why don’t polls make any sense? Partisan lens.


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