A&P Connective Bone and Muscle Tissue
A&P Connective Bone and Muscle Tissue BIOL 221
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Zurn on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 221 at Towson University taught by Stella A. Evans in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Biol 221 Spring 2015 Connective, Muscle, and Nervous Tissue Outline Reading assignment: Ch 4 pages 126143 Connective Tissues Functions of connective tissues: Support: Cartilage acts as support. Protection (physical and immune): Bones; ribs protect the heart and lungs. The skull protects the brain. Blood is connective tissue, white blood cells and platelets provide protection again blood clotting. Movement: Bones, ligaments. Storage: Adipose tissue, storing things as energy, Transport: Red blood cells; carries oxygen throughout the body. Plasma carries waste protects; gases, proteins, hormones, etc. Components of connective tissue: Types of Cells: Fibroblasts: Starshapes cells that make the fibers. Common inside of connective tissue. Macrophages: Two types, 1) fixed: doesn’t move around a lot, 2) wondering or free: goes where it is needed. They find a pathogen or an old cell that needs destroyed, and get rid of it (absorb it and “chew” it up). Adipocytes: Fat cells. Mast cell : Carry histamine (inflammatory). Lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and plasma cells : (Plasma Cells) Create antibodies. (Lymphocytes) Help to fight infections. Red Blood Cells: Carry oxygen. Fibers: Collagen fibers Most common, long and straight. Very strong and difficult to break when pulled from either end. We want to find these mostly in ligaments; for example, your fingers, they need to be strong and flexible. Reticular fibers Form a frame work, more of a support fiber. Find a lot of these in organs. Elastic fiber : Stretches really well. “Like a rubber band, very flexible and stretchy.” Ground Substance: A viscous liquid that contains protein and makes up the rest of the cells that aren’t fibers. Connective tissue types: Slide three: Blue=Cellular Components Pink=Fibers Green=Water Components of connective tissue. Connective tissue proper Loose connective tissue: Not tightly packed together. Areolar tissue: Found under membranes, fibers aren't close together with a lot of ground substance. Collagen fibers are thicker and elastic are thin. Found were nerves and blood vessels pass through, acts a support system. It is very vascular, makes for a good place to give injections to a patient. Adipose tissue: Nucleus of the cell is usually pushed off to the side. Fats are stored inside the cell (which we can use for energy or for insulation, also acts as comfort, [if you take a hit it’ll absorb most of the damage to protect important organs]). Reticular tissue: Doesn’t have a lot of collagen fibers. Mesh work of supportive cells and supportive fibers. Fibroblasts are in here. Found in organs that need support, i.e. the liver, the spleen, etc. Help the shapes and protection of the organ. You can also find these in bone marrow where stem cells would be. Dense connective tissue: Very tightly packed together. Dense regular connective tissue: Densely packed, parallel collagen fibers. Compressed fibroblast nuclei. Elastic tissue/fibers, wavy sheets. Tendons attach muscles to bones and ligaments hold bones together. Tendons attach muscles to bone and ligaments is bone to bone. Dense irregular connective tissue: Densely packed, randomly arranged, collagen fibers and few visible cells. Withstands unpredictable stresses from different directions. Deeper layer of skin; capsules around organs which help support the organ. Around certain joints to help hold in fluid to protect the joint and lubricate. Elastic tissue: Densely packed collagen and elastic fibers. Walls of large blood vessels. Unlike collagen tissues, elastic tissue is thin. Looks like dense regular tissue but there are more collagen fibers. Fluid connective tissue: Blood: Plasma: Bloods liquid ground substance. Erythrocytes: Red blood cells transport 02 and CO2. Platelets: Cell fragments involved in clotting and other mechanisms. Leukocytes: White blood Cells: Defense against infection and other diseases. Fluid Portion: transports nutrients, gasses, waste products, and hormones. Lymph Travels through lymph vessels which travel through lymph nodes and the spleen. Helps maintain homeostasis for blood volume. Run almost parallel to blood vessels. Supporting connective tissue: Cartilage: Avascular; gets its nutrients from diffusion. Supportive connective tissue which is found between the joints and bones. Chondrocytes: Cartilage cell Lacunae: Chamber the cell is found in Perichondrium: The membrane that surrounds the cartilage. Types of Cartilage: Hyaline cartilage: Clear; glassy microscopic appearance because of unusual fineness of the collagen fibers. Usually covered by perichondrium. Articular cartilage, costal cartilage, trachea, larynx, and fetal skeleton. Eases joint movement, holds airway open, moves vocal cords during speech. Very clear and unique. Found in respiratory system. Elastic cartilage: Elastic fibers. Allows for a lot of elasticity and movement. Found in external epiglottis and external ear. Perichardium is the membrane that surrounds the cartilage. Fibrocartilage: Mostly made up of collagen fibers. Found in locations where two structures can bump together. Pubic symphisis, menisci, and inter vertebral discs. Bone : Bone is very vascular so it gets nutrients quickly and easily and heals faster than cartilage Looks like rings of a tree Osteocytes: A bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted. Lacunae: Chamber around the osteocyte. Canaliculi: Allows movement between osteocytes. Periosteum: Fibrous membrane that surrounds the bone everywhere except in the joints. Membranes : Composed of epithelium with underlying connective tissue Types: Mucous membrane : Have mucous glands. Found in respiratory track. In the digestive track they make sure everything stays slippery so everything can move through the system without getting stuck. Mucous membranes are coated with the secretions of mucous glands. These membranes line the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Serous membrane : Serous membranes line the ventral body cavities (the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities). Simple squamous. Helps reduce friction. Helps connect organs or hold them in place. Cutaneous membrane : Skin: The cutaneous membrane, or skin, covers the outer. Stratified for protection from abrasion and chemicals. Synovial membrane : Synovial membranes line joint cavities and produce the fluid within the joint. fluid helps to reduce and prevent friction. Fasciae : Provides stability and strength to organs and tissue. “Superficial fasciae” helps with shock absorption. “Deep fasciae” is found with muscles and helping with binding to tendons and ligaments. Muscle Tissue Functions of muscle tissue: Movement of and stabilization of the skeleton, generates heat, protects organs. provides contractions to help aid in body functions (digestion, blood pumping). Types of muscle tissue: Skeletal: Anything attached to bones that allows movements. Cardiac: Locked together location. Circulates blood and maintains blood pressure. Branched. Smooth: Moves food and urine, controls respiratory airways, regulated blood vessel diameter. Involuntary. Nervous Tissue : Nervous tissue: Specialized for communication by electrical and chemical signals. Neuroglia (gli :) Protect and assist neurons. “Housekeepers” of nervous system. Consists of neurons : Detect stimuli. Respond quickly. Transmit coded information rapidly to other cells. Review questions: 1. What features do most or all connective tissues have in common to set this class apart from nervous, muscular and epithelial tissue? 2. List the cell and fiber types found in fibrous connective tissues and state their functional differences. 3. What substances account for the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue ground substance? 4. What is areolar tissue? How can it be distinguished from any other kind of connective tissue? 5. Discuss the difference between dense regular and dense irregular connective tissue as an example of the relationship between form and function. 6. Describe some similarities, differences, and functional relationships between hyaline cartilage and bone. 7. What are the three basic kinds of formed elements in blood, and what are their respective functions? 8. What do nervous and muscular tissue have in common? What is the primary function of each? 9. Name the three kinds of muscular tissue, describe how to distinguish them from each other in microscopic appearance and state a location and function for each. 11. Which do you think would heal faster, cartilage or bone? Stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium? Why?
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