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2444 History of Sports

by: Holly Melton

2444 History of Sports 2444

Marketplace > East Carolina University > History > 2444 > 2444 History of Sports
Holly Melton

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here are week 2 of the 2444 History of Sports. please check back for future lecture notes. :)
History of Sports in Western History
Class Notes
Sports History, online class, 2444
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holly Melton on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2444 at East Carolina University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History of Sports in Western History in History at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Evolution of American’s Game Baseballs origins  Some said English import and derived from rounder from Great Britain  Other say it was American originals  2 U.S senators along with Albert Spalding a former pitcher (sporting goods) declared that Abner Doubleday invented baseball in 1839 in Cooperstown New York known as the Double Day Myth  A letter written 68 years by an elderly man recalled way back in 1839 that teenage Abner Doubleday gave him and his friends a list of handwritten rules Baseball rules  Abner Doubleday was a cadet in the U.S army training academy at West Point so many believe this Double Day Myth isn’t true  Many wanted the Double Day Myth to be true so it frames Baseball as American th  In 1939, Baseball hall of fame on the 100 anniversary of alleged Double Day Myth  Baseball evolved over time into town ball, old cat, stool ball, tut ball, trap ball, barn ball, and tip cat with different rules played since the 18 century in England and America  but in the middle of 19th century Baseball became dominant over stick and ball games  1840-New York Knickerbockers formed from random civilians who played recreational sports  In 1845-Alexander Cartwright presented a written set of rules and became the New York Game  His rules basically established Baseball that we know today “Americans Game” Grows  Knickerbockers played with his rules because concepts that were already being used in games against other New York Games  Spread rapidly because games were being played between other states  Union and Confederate soldiers played games to pass the time  The Town Ball Phenomenon-teams formed and competed in a given town  The best players form each town began to play for civic pride against other towns best 9  Game spread rapidly because technolthy (industrial revolution in the second half of 19 century), respectability, roots were middle class,  Homerun was discouraged during the beginning stage of Baseball, but to win you had to use strategy and science to win  Help shaped good moral character by sharpening the mind, body, self-discipline, and hygiene  Victorians loved these traits and supported this game Business of Baseball  Baseball was play mainly by amateurs but in 1869 that changed when the Red Stockings became the first professional team led by Harry Right  Red Stockings went undefeated for their first professional season because they traveled 12000 miles to play against amateur teams around U.S  The team key figures were Harry Wright and his brother George left to form the Boston Red Stockings  In 1869 Baseball became a business enterprise as profit  Albert Spalding made a sporting goods store selling Baseball equipment and came out with a Catalog, furthering his wealth from selling equipment, statistics, along with schedules  Spalding and other entrepreneurs built stadiums and held games for fans to buy tickets to watch  In 1876 8 teams formed the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs  The National League tried to establish itself as a cartel after the 1876 foundation  This gave owners control over rules and regulations  Reserve cause bounded players to their team for life unless they were sold, trade, or released  The league limited teams to one per city and new clubs had to be approved by existing members along with paying an admission fee  The league also outlawed Sunday games and gambling at the ball park, they were allowed to set admission fees, hire umpires and make schedules Labor vs. Management  National League team owners enforced strict labor discipline  Such as a salary cap and enforcing reserved cause  They black listed players who tried to defy owners by jumping to different teams for higher salary and fined and suspended players who violated the strict code of conduct  This created deep conflict between labor and management  Labor unions defended the rights of workers of steal making and the unions resorted to strikes  Baseball was no different, players felt like they weren’t being payed fairly  Players resented the reserve cause and the $25,000 salary  Players were angry at the reserve cause and led them to form a labor union in 1885  John Montgomery Ward was a leader of the Brotherhood of Professional Baseball players and a star of the Players league  He threatened to strike and set up a rival league if management continued the unfair practices  When management didn’t budge they formed the Players League, they had 7 cities had 2 teams  The players league were jointly owned by rich backers and players  Most of the best players went to the players league which had higher salaries and better working conditions  In 1890 the players league lost the war to the national league  Albert Spalding denounced the rebelling players as anarchist and revolutionaries  In 1891 the Players league collapsed and allowed the National league to have 12 teams  All sports had to wait until the late 1960 for the elimination of the reserve cause


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