Psych Notes 2.29 - 3.4
Psych Notes 2.29 - 3.4 PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology
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PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andrew Weitz on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 10 Notes – Intelligence - What is intelligence? - In the past, what IQ tests measure, which is simply the ability ot do well in school. - Other definitions: (1) possession of knowledge and ability to use it adaptively (2) ability to master info and skills needed to succeed in a particular culture/environment (3) problem-solving skills, ability to learn from everyday experiences - African and Asian cultures are more “collectivist” (group think), so things like social skills are thought of as a part of intelligence - Accommodate reality, morality defined by social networks, few enduring relationships, behavior = social norms - Kpelle people of Liberia, smart people that failed aspects of a Western-style intelligence test. - More individualist cultures like America don’t think that way: - Change reality, morality defined by individuals, many often temporary relationships, behavior = personal attitude/beliefs - One general intelligence, or many types of intelligence? - Analytical vs. creative vs. practical - Alfred Binet, French psychologist, asked to create a test to identify special-needs students - Binet-Simon Scale = reasoning, thinking, problem-solving skills - score provided as a “mental age” estimate. You want to perform at your own actual age level or better. - Binet was concerned the results would be used to label kids in terms of their capability, rather than simply their current experience/knowledge - Stanford-Binet test = a few changes - Developed by Terman - adapted for adult intelligence testing as well - Intelligence Quotient (IQ), (Mental Age/Chronological Age) x100 - So, 100 = average. - Not quite accurate… - Immigrants who didn’t perform well were assumed to be intellectually inferior, used to limit immigration from certain countries… Tests used today: - Stanford-Binet - Wechsler Scales: - most widely used - WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) - WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children), ages 6-16 - WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), used for those below age 6 - Overall score plus sub-scores - Verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, processing speed, etc. - How are intelligence tests constructed? - Calculating IQ: - Representative samples - Norms – descriptions of frequency of scores - Normal distribution = bell-shaped curve - Average IQ = 100 - Score reflects relative standing compared to others of same age - 95% of people fall 30 points around 100 (below or above), so few people are significantly stupid or smart - Reliability = stability of scores over time - increases with age for IQ tests - High reliability, same results from one time to another - Validity = authenticity - Does the test measure what it claims to measure? - High reliability = accurate conclusions and predictions - Genetic influences - correlation higher in closer relatives - identical vs. fraternal twins, even identical twins reared apart have more similar intelligence scores than fraternal twins reared together - Environmental influences: - Unrelated children reared together have a greater similarity of IQ than siblings reared apart - In similar environments, differences due more to genetics - In different environments, differences due more to environment - Groups: - much more similar than different - differences often assumed to be genetic - ethnicity – small differences in group averages - African American & Hispanic groups slightly lower… - European & Asian groups slightly higher… - However, no correlation between degree of European genes and IQ - Heavily influenced by socioeconomic factors! Which is why as conditions are getting better, the IQ gap is closing - Also hugely influenced by history…slavery - Gender comparisons - no difference in average IQ scores between males and females - However: - average score of females tends to be higher for verbal tasks - score for males tends to be higher for non-verbal, spatial tasks - Men tend to be better with verbal analogies - Women tend to be better at math calculations! - However, these differences all tend to disappear with higher education - Environmental factors: - gender binary enforced by parents & society - activities and toys (some videogames enhance spatial skills) Roles of stereotypes - Stereotypes can influence our attitudes, self-confidence, self-image - Stereotype threat – anxiety that you will confirm a stereotype about yourself, actually leading to poorer performance - It’s a self-fulfilling prophecy! - Institutionalized racism, dude… - Applies to gender as well. e.g. Students were asked to take a test in swimsuits, a very gendered clothing article. Women performed more poorly than when normally clothed. - Summary: - cannot predict intelligence based on ethnicity or gender - IQ can predict academic achievement & success, but NOT special distinction (people at tope of fields) - It takes more than intelligence to be successful! Work, motivation, connections, discipline, talent, etcetera. - Discipline is a better predictor of success than an IQ score. - No correlation between IQ and net wealth. Chapter 11 Notes – Motivation - Motivation = need or desire that energizes and directs behavior - Theories of Motivation - Instinct theory – all motivation comes from instincts. Automatic, unlearned, involuntary, and consistent within members of each species. - However, of human and animal behavior is much more flexible than instinct theory would allow for. Also doesn’t factor in our capacity for learning. - Drive-reduction theory – physiological imbalance creates a need, the need leads to an aroused state/drive, and the state/drive prompts behavior to fulfill the need and correct the imbalance - Homeostasis – steady, ideal internal state. - Our bodies and minds perform best within a narrow set of parameters of rest, nutrients, stress, etcetera. - However, still doesn’t explain many behaviors… - Arousal theory: - Arousal = general activation level of body and brain - We are motivated to maintain a personal optimal level of arousal - Differs from individual to individual, genetically influences - We seek calm when too aroused, etc. - Works fairly well, but still doesn’t explain everything… - Incentive theory – we are motivated to gain positive incentives while avoiding negative consequences - related to Operant Conditioning - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Means – needs lower on hierarchy/pyramid take precedence over higher needs - Need to satisfy hunger and thirst before worrying about self- actualization… - Physiological needs -> Safety needs -> Belongingness and love needs -> Esteem needs (achievement, respect, feel useful) -> Self-actualization needs (live up to our own unique potential) -> Self-transcendence (find meaning & identity beyond the self) - Doesn’t explain the fact that we sometimes ignore basic needs to fulfill higher needs (up all night to study for a test) - Hunger & Eating - Hardly understood… - Brain (hypothalamus) receive signals from the blood, the stomach, and other organs regarding nutrient levels, hormone levels, and fullness. Comes together to say: I’m hungry!
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