BSC216 week of 2/8
BSC216 week of 2/8 216
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lecture in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Endocrine System 02112016 Compare endocrine system control to nervous system control 0 Both maintain homeostasis Both use chemicals to communicate with other cells Endocrine vs nervous o E indirect stimulation of target cells via hormones secreted into blood system seconds to days to elicit effects longer lasUng o N direct stimulation of target cells via neurotransmitters immediate short lasting effects What types of chemical signaling does the body use Endocrine o Paracrine o Autocrine o Juxtacrine What are the major structures and functions of the endocrine system Endocrine organs Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Thymus gland Adrenal cortex Adrenal medulla Pancreas Ovaries OOOOOOO O O Testes Primary organs only endocrine functions Anterior pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands Adrenal cortices Endocrine pancreas Thymus Secondary organs endocrine amp other functions Hypothalamus Pineal gland Adrenal medulla Heart Kidneys Small intestines Adipose tissue Testes ovaries FuncUon All organs regulate other cell types through the production and secretion of hormones Neuroendocrine organs Anterior pituitary gland o Posterior pituitary gland o Hypothalamus o Pineal gland Heart kidneys adipose tissue small intestines etc all secrete hormones too De ne hormone endocrine gland and target cell Endocrine gland o Glands consisting of ductless glandular epithelial cells that secrete hormones into the extracellular uid and blood stream Hormones n Chemicals that regulate the functions of other cells Target cell a Cells that contain speci c protein receptors for a given hormone What are the major hormone chemical classes and what receptors do they bind to Steroid based 0 Always hydrophobic Derived from cholesterol 0 Bind to membrane or intracellular receptors 0 Amino acid based 0 Generally hydrophilic except Thyroid hormone o Monoamines Derived from single amino acids o Peptides Derived from chains of amino acids 0 Bind to receptor proteins in plasma membrane What stimulates hormone production and secretion and what role do feedback loops play Hormone stimulation 0 Hormonal stimuli Releasing hormones n Stimulate other endocrine organs to produce and release hormones n Ex growth hormonereleasing hormone amp growth hormone Inhibiting hormones n Inhibit other endocrine organs from producing and releasing hormones n Ex Somastatin amp growth hormone o Humoral stimuli in uids in blood Molecules or ions in blood or tissue uid stimulates endocrine cells Ex blood glucose amp insulin 0 Neural stimuli Some endocrine cells are directly stimulated by neurons Ex adrenal medulla amp epinephrine Feedback loops Hormone secretion is generally regulated by neg feedback loops 0 Stimulus regulated variable deviates from normal range 0 Receptor Endocrine cells detect deviation 0 Control Center stimulated center increasesdecreases hormone secretion 0 EffectorResponse Hormone triggers a response in target cell Negative feedback as variable returns to normal 0 Multiple hormones o Synergistic hormones Different hormones acting on the same target cells to produce the same effect 0 Antagonistic hormones Different hormones acting on the same target cells to produce opposing effects 0 Neg feedback loops get complicated depends with hormone has stronger effect Describe the structures and functional relationships of the hypothalamus anterior and posterior Pituitary glands Hypothalamus forms oor of 3rel ventricle o lnfundibulum connects hypothalamus and pituitary gland Posterior pituitary neurohypophysis neural tissue 0 Cell bodies of neuron in hypothalamus o Axons travel through infundibulum o Axon terminals in posterior pituitary o Hormones released into blood stream when neurons re ADH Oxytocin Anterior pituitary adenohypophysis adrenal gland o Hypothalamic neurons secrete releasing or inhibiting hormones into capillary bed o Hormones travel through hypothalamic hypophyseal portal system I hypothalamic capillary bed l portal vein l anterior pituitary capillary bed 0 Hypothalamic hormones stimulate or inhibit anterior pituitary secretion of hormones range of hormones that either effect other endocrine organs or have wide spread effects How do releasing inhibiting and tropic hormones affect the secretion of other hormones Topic hormones o Hormones that control hormone secretion from other endocrine glands Releasing hormones o Tropic hormones produce and released by hypothalamus that stimulate secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary Inhibiting hormones o Tropic hormones produce and released by hypothalamus that inhibit secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary Describe the stimulus for release target tissue and functional effect of the hormones released by the posterior and anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary o Antidiuretic hormone ADH vasopressin Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus stimulate ADH release if blood solute conc too high Increases aquaporins in kidney tubules Results in increased water retention 0 Oxytocin Ex infant suckling in nursing mothers Mammary gland cell contraction Milk letdown re ex o Anterior pituitary 5 tropic hormones growth hormone o Thyrotropin releasing hormone TRH Thyroidstimulating hormone TSH n Thyroid gland development and Thyroid hormone secretion 0 Corticotropic releasing hormone CRH Adenocorticotropic hormone ACTH n Adrenal gland development and steroid hormone secretion 0 Prolactin releasing hormone PRH Prolactin PRL n Mammary gland development and milk production 0 Gonadotropic releasing hormone GnRH Luteinizing hormone LH n Stimulates testes and ovaries to produce testosterone and estrogens respectively Follicle stimulating hormone FSH n Binds and concentrates testosterone in males estrogen production and follicle maturation in females 0 Most pituitary hormones target speci c endocrine organs 0 Exception growth hormone 0 Wide spread effects on body tissues 0 Ex induces liver to produce Insulinlike growth factors IGF amp IGF II IGF prolongs the effects of growth hormone a Growth hormone halfife10 min IGF 20 hrs a IGF mostly only involved in fetal growth
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