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NFS 1020 FEB 16-23

by: Austin Hansen

NFS 1020 FEB 16-23 NFS 1020

Austin Hansen
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes talk about our class discussions on Sugars, Diabetes, and FATS. Chapter 4-5 win the Nutrition book
Human Nutrition
Artis Grady
Class Notes
NFS 1020
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austin Hansen on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 1020 at Southern Utah University taught by Artis Grady in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Southern Utah University.

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Date Created: 02/11/16
FEBRUARY 16, 2016 NFS 1020 Glucose in the Body     ­Carbs are broken down into Glucose, which is either stored in chains called  glycogen (usually in the liver to be used later)… or the glucose molecules are  sent to the blood stream where it connects with insulin (hormone that opens Cell  membranes) to help the Glucose enter into individual cells to be broken down  further for energy in a process called “Cellular Respiration.”     GLUCOSE IS BROKEN DOWN IN THE CELLS TO MAKE ENERGY (ATP)     Glucose+Oxygen —> Oxygen+ Water + Energy (ATP)                 DIABETES Insulin is the hormone that is the key to open the cell membrane to let in Glucose to be broken-down in the cell. Diabetes is a problem with either the production of insulin (type 1) or the cell becoming resistant to insulin (type 2) usually due to obesity or a constant high glucose levels in the blood. Type 1 Diabetes- Often Genetically born… Pancreas does not produce insulin. Type 2 Diabetes- Not genetically born but gained overtime usually related to obesity… Cells become resistent to insulin. SUGAR ALTERNATIVES -Sugar Alcohols -Saccharin -Aspartame -Acesulfame-K -Splenda -Neotame -Tagatose -Stevia FEBRUARY 18, 2016 FATS Female male Body Type  Body fat Body Fat  Athletes  14­20%  6­13%  Fitness  21­24%  14­17%  Acceptable  25­30%  18­25%  Obese  31%+  26%+  Woman naturally have a higher body fat percent Function of Fats in the Body -Energy (9 cals per gram) -Reserve storage of energy -Makes up Cell membranes (fatty acids) -often carries soluble vitamins (A,D,K, etc.) -Cushion for body (butt) TYPES OF FATS: TRIGLYCERIDES (type of Phospholipid) -1 Glycerol connected to 3 fatty acids. SATURATED FATS -All hydrogen bonds are full (all single bonds) -more straight fatty acid chain -Generally come from animal sources and are solid at room temperature UNSATURATED FATS -Hydrogen bonds are not all full (there are double bonds) - usually has a bend in the fatty acid chain -Generally come from plant sources and are liquid at room temperature. Trans fat -Unsaturated fats forced to accept hydrogen to be more Saturated through Hydrogenation -Raises LDL cholesterol (bad) and lowers HDL cholesterol HEALTH! Monounsaturated like olive oil are the healthiest and carry essential fatty acids, which our bodies need to build certain cell membranes. (REPLACE OLIVE OIL WITH OTHER OILS/BUTTER TO MAXIMIZE HEALTH EFFICIENCY). ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS -Linoleic (Omega-6) Arachidonic -Lenolenic (Omega-3) EPA DHA Function of Essential fatty acids ▯ -Enables body to make Eicosanoids, which are important 1 -Messengers in the body-Makes membrane of cells- Essential for 1 -Brain function (The human brain is nearly 60% fat)- Normal growth and vision-Gene regulation and genetic activities affecting 2 -Metabolism 3 -Immune cell function FEBRUARY 23, 2016 FATS CONTINUED Types of common “invisible” fats in food: -Waxes (Cheap chocolates, shine of fruits) -Phospholipids Lecithin -Sterols Cholesterol How companies "reduce or replace” Fats in food: -Add water -Whip air into product to increase quantity -Use soy products -“Bake" instead of frying (potato chips) -lower fat, but increase carbohydrate -lower fat, but increase whipped protein -Modify cell structure


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