PSYC 160, Week 5 Notes
PSYC 160, Week 5 Notes PSYC 160
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
02/08/16 Exam One Chapter Two Section 2.1 Earliest Development and the Foundations of Genetics 02/10/16 1. Genes and Chromosomes a. Genes – basic unit of genetic info b. DNA is what genes are composed of that determine function of all the cells c. Chromosomes – 46 of them, arranged in 23 pairs i. 23 pair determines sex; sex is also determined by males ii. XX = female iii. XY = male d. We can now determine which sperm is carrying an X or Y e. 1 out of 400 males are born with an extra X, known as Klinefelter’s syndrome i. Results in underdeveloped genitals, enlarged breasts, extreme height f. Other possible combinations – XYY, X 2. How do traits get passed on? a. Genotype – combination of genetic material that’s not outwardly visible i. Example: hereditary diseases, such as diabetes b. Phenotype – traits that can be seen i. Ex. hair color, eye color c. Principles i. Dominant-recessive genes 1. Dominant – expressed trait 2. Recessive – trait that is present, but not expressed 3. We can inherit recessive genes and not know it 4. 1 in 4 chance that 2 brown hair, brown eyed parents can have a blonde hair, blue eyed baby ii. X-linked recessive genes – located only on X chromosome, because its defective 1. Ex. allergies, blood clots, red-green color blindness iii. Polygenic traits – characteristics influenced by multiple pairs of genes d. Genetic Counseling i. Testing for diseases that can be passed down to their kids ii. Cost is very prohibitive iii. Types: 1. Prenatal Testing a. Ultrasound sonography – images of the fetus, such as size, shape, and sex b. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) – taking placenta samples to see if there’s a problem i. Puncturing placenta increases risk of miscarriage ii. Done in 10-13 week c. Amniocentesis – identifying genetic defects through fetus samples; fairly accurthe i. Done during 15-20 week e. Pregnancy Questions i. Can twins have two different dads? 1. Yes, but they must be fraternal ii. Can women get pregnant when they’re already pregnant? 1. Yes, there’s a 10 day window iii. Is it possible to have two uteri? 1. Yes, but typically the second one does not work f. Interaction of Environment and Heredity i. Tend to study identical twins, fraternal twins, and adopted children ii. Problems with studying identical twins, fraternal twins, and adopted kids 1. Kids might not know they’re adopted 2. Closed adoption files 3. Adoption is expensive, so wealthy Caucasians do most of the adopting 4. Dressing identical twins the same takes away identity iii. Shared environmental influences 1. Same home, similar experiences 2. Picking favorite children iv. Non shared environmental influences 1. Treating one kid differently from others g. Intelligence i. 50% is inherited ii. As identical twins age, IQs become similar. As fraternal twins age, IQs differ. h. Psychological Disorders i. Can disorders be inherited? 1. Depends on the disorder ii. Greater chance of schizophrenia if parent had it iii. 2 parents with schizophrenia high chance of schizophrenia 1. Odds one of your siblings will have it is 1 out of 2 iv. If neither parent has schizophrenia, there’s only a 10% chance of having schizophrenia v. Identical twin with schizophrenia 48% chance other will have it vi. Fraternal, same sex twin with schizophrenia 13% chance other will have it vii. Fraternal, opposite sex twin with schizophrenia 6% chance other will have it viii. Smoking too much weed can bring on schizophrenia