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SCOM 121 Notes Week 5

by: Kira Gavalakis

SCOM 121 Notes Week 5 SCOM 121 0003

Kira Gavalakis
GPA 3.4

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HOMEWORK CHAPTERS for this week. Study these to get ready for your speeches coming up soon!!
Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations
Lori Britt
Class Notes
SCOM, Social Communications, Comm, Com, Communications, communication studies, JMU, General Education, public speaking
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 121 0003 at James Madison University taught by Lori Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations in Communication at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 13: Presenting Speeches 51. What are some guidelines for managing speech anxiety? Speech anxiety­ fear of public speaking. - Prepare and practice (procrastination increases anxiety. There is no  substitute for preparation and practice.) - Gain perspective (Anxiety will diminish during your speech; concentrate  on the probable, not the improbable) - Reframe (view it as a performance, use communication orientation by  making your message clear and interesting to audience, practice speech  conversationally) - Use coping statements (I’m past the tough part, I’ll do better once I get  started, the best part is still ahead) - Visualize success (make an image in your head of you making a great  speech) - Use relaxation techniques (reduce fight­or­flight, yawn, stretch, wiggling  your facial muscles, etc) - Use systematic desensitization (technique used to control anxiety triggered by a wide variety of stimuli. Read your speech and when you feel anxiety  drop paper and start relaxation exercise.)  52 .   What are the critical elements of a competent speech introduction? 1. Gain attention ­ Begin with a clever quote ­ Used questions ­ Use visual aid ­ Tell a relevant story ­ Refer to person introducing you and acknowledge audience 2. Make a clear purpose statement 3. Establish topic significance, or make your audience care ­ Audience is wondering, “how does this affect me?” 4. Preview the main points ­ Establish your credibility—tell them that you have an MBA, have been a  collegiate swimmer, or have worked with the visually impaired. ­ In certain situations, it’s not necessary, especially if it is written on the program ­ Audiences will listen if you sound smart  53 .   How does a speaker create credibility and identification in an introduction?  Mentioning his or her background or experience  Sounding as though you know what you’re talking about  This takes the ENTIRE SPEECH, not just introduction  54 .   What are the critical elements of a competent speech conclusion? 1. Summarize the main points 2. Refer to the introduction 3. Make a memorable finish DON’T END ABRUPTLY, MENTION GOING OVER TIME, OR RAMBLE.  55 .   How does the oral style of communication differ from a written style?  We use shorter sentences when we speak than when we write  Oral speeches are interactive and written ones are not  Oral speeches are less formal than written ones  56 .   What impact do various delivery considerations have on an audience (eye contact,  vocal variety, verbal fluency, poise, dynamism)?  Eye contact—look at entire audience  Vocal variety—emotional contagion will make audience feel happy if you are  happy, differ pitch, inflection and volume.  Verbal fluency—don’t use fillers (um, like, you know)  Dynamism—slower pace when speaking of sensitive subjects, faster pace when  you want to sound intelligent, confident, but not too fast.  Poise—move around a little bit, but don’t do it excessively because it will distract  57 .   Explain the differences between the major delivery styles (manuscript, memorized, extemporaneous, and impromptu). THE BIG 4: 1. Manuscript Speaking—appropriate when it is necessary that your words are precise, but speaker gets buried in speech, can’t look up, doesn’t seem sincere, you can’t make changes if audience doesn’t respond well 2. Memorized Speaking—appropriate for wedding toasts, sounds natural, but you shouldn’t try to memorize more than 5 minutes 3. Impromptu Speaking—delivered without preparation. Anticipate if you think you will have to make a speech, draw on life experiences, formulate a simple outline 4. Extemporaneous   Speaking—delivered   from   outlines   or   notes.   Sounds spontaneous even though you have notes because you’re not glued to them, greater eye contact with audience, speaker can respond to audience feedback, delivery should match the context for your speech, i.e. a eulogy wouldn’t require much body movement Chapter 14: Informative Speaking  58 .   What distinguishes informative speaking from persuasive speaking? ­ The general purpose of an informative speech is to teach your audience something new, interesting, and useful. ­ The general purpose of a persuasive speech is to convince your listeners to change  their viewpoint and behavior. (it can be a blurry line that separates informative from persuasive speeches.) Competent Informal Speaking: Inform: tell us what we don’t know Adapt: audience analysis Organize carefully: clarity is critical Internal summary­ restates a key point in a speech. “As you can now see, protecting homes from wildfires begins with clearing a defensible  space around each home.” Supporting materials revisited: follow the rules Avoid information overload: don’t drown in data Tell your story well: narrative tips  59 .   What are signposts and transitions, and how are they used in constructing a  presentation? (This is under the “Organize carefully: clarity is critical” sub point) - Signpost­ organizational markers that indicate the structure of the speech  and notify listeners that a particular point is about to be addressed. - Transition­ connects what was said with what will be said. - Signpost and transitions have the same purpose of GUIDING the listeners  during a speech. - Important to help audience UNDERSTAND 60. Describe the characteristics of an appropriate or effective oral citation. ­ The first citation should be complete, but the ones after that can be abbreviated Narrative Tips: 1. Choose a story that fits your audience 2. Make sure the story fits your purpose and illustrates a key point 3. Keep the stories concise 4. Practice telling your story 5. Do not read your story to your listeners 6. Be animated, even visual, when telling a story. 61. What are the types of visual aids that can be used during a speech? Visual aids can… Clarify difficult points, gain and maintain audience attention, enhance speaker  credibility, improve your delivery, and be memorable.  1. Objects  - Too big/too small? Can’t be live, illegal, etc. 2. Models (i.e. plastic model of human mouth) 3. Graphs - Dramatic visual impact - Can’t be too much information 4. Maps - Must be large and simple - Should be accurate 5. Tables - Easy­to­understand comparisons - Can’t be messy/hastily made 6. Photographs - Needs to be enlarged 7. Drawings - Can’t be sloppy or hard to distinguish  62 .   What are guidelines for the competent usage of visual aids? - Keep aids simple - Make them visible - Make them neat, attractive and accurate - Don’t block the audience’s view - Keep them close to you - Put it out of sight when not in use - Practice with aids - Don’t circulate your aids - Don’t talk in the dark (keep the lights on for videos/power points) - Anticipate problems


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