SCOM 121 Notes Week 5
SCOM 121 Notes Week 5 SCOM 121 0003
Popular in Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations
Popular in Communication
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 121 0003 at James Madison University taught by Lori Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations in Communication at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 13: Presenting Speeches 51. What are some guidelines for managing speech anxiety? Speech anxiety fear of public speaking. - Prepare and practice (procrastination increases anxiety. There is no substitute for preparation and practice.) - Gain perspective (Anxiety will diminish during your speech; concentrate on the probable, not the improbable) - Reframe (view it as a performance, use communication orientation by making your message clear and interesting to audience, practice speech conversationally) - Use coping statements (I’m past the tough part, I’ll do better once I get started, the best part is still ahead) - Visualize success (make an image in your head of you making a great speech) - Use relaxation techniques (reduce fightorflight, yawn, stretch, wiggling your facial muscles, etc) - Use systematic desensitization (technique used to control anxiety triggered by a wide variety of stimuli. Read your speech and when you feel anxiety drop paper and start relaxation exercise.) 52 . What are the critical elements of a competent speech introduction? 1. Gain attention Begin with a clever quote Used questions Use visual aid Tell a relevant story Refer to person introducing you and acknowledge audience 2. Make a clear purpose statement 3. Establish topic significance, or make your audience care Audience is wondering, “how does this affect me?” 4. Preview the main points Establish your credibility—tell them that you have an MBA, have been a collegiate swimmer, or have worked with the visually impaired. In certain situations, it’s not necessary, especially if it is written on the program Audiences will listen if you sound smart 53 . How does a speaker create credibility and identification in an introduction? Mentioning his or her background or experience Sounding as though you know what you’re talking about This takes the ENTIRE SPEECH, not just introduction 54 . What are the critical elements of a competent speech conclusion? 1. Summarize the main points 2. Refer to the introduction 3. Make a memorable finish DON’T END ABRUPTLY, MENTION GOING OVER TIME, OR RAMBLE. 55 . How does the oral style of communication differ from a written style? We use shorter sentences when we speak than when we write Oral speeches are interactive and written ones are not Oral speeches are less formal than written ones 56 . What impact do various delivery considerations have on an audience (eye contact, vocal variety, verbal fluency, poise, dynamism)? Eye contact—look at entire audience Vocal variety—emotional contagion will make audience feel happy if you are happy, differ pitch, inflection and volume. Verbal fluency—don’t use fillers (um, like, you know) Dynamism—slower pace when speaking of sensitive subjects, faster pace when you want to sound intelligent, confident, but not too fast. Poise—move around a little bit, but don’t do it excessively because it will distract 57 . Explain the differences between the major delivery styles (manuscript, memorized, extemporaneous, and impromptu). THE BIG 4: 1. Manuscript Speaking—appropriate when it is necessary that your words are precise, but speaker gets buried in speech, can’t look up, doesn’t seem sincere, you can’t make changes if audience doesn’t respond well 2. Memorized Speaking—appropriate for wedding toasts, sounds natural, but you shouldn’t try to memorize more than 5 minutes 3. Impromptu Speaking—delivered without preparation. Anticipate if you think you will have to make a speech, draw on life experiences, formulate a simple outline 4. Extemporaneous Speaking—delivered from outlines or notes. Sounds spontaneous even though you have notes because you’re not glued to them, greater eye contact with audience, speaker can respond to audience feedback, delivery should match the context for your speech, i.e. a eulogy wouldn’t require much body movement Chapter 14: Informative Speaking 58 . What distinguishes informative speaking from persuasive speaking? The general purpose of an informative speech is to teach your audience something new, interesting, and useful. The general purpose of a persuasive speech is to convince your listeners to change their viewpoint and behavior. (it can be a blurry line that separates informative from persuasive speeches.) Competent Informal Speaking: Inform: tell us what we don’t know Adapt: audience analysis Organize carefully: clarity is critical Internal summary restates a key point in a speech. “As you can now see, protecting homes from wildfires begins with clearing a defensible space around each home.” Supporting materials revisited: follow the rules Avoid information overload: don’t drown in data Tell your story well: narrative tips 59 . What are signposts and transitions, and how are they used in constructing a presentation? (This is under the “Organize carefully: clarity is critical” sub point) - Signpost organizational markers that indicate the structure of the speech and notify listeners that a particular point is about to be addressed. - Transition connects what was said with what will be said. - Signpost and transitions have the same purpose of GUIDING the listeners during a speech. - Important to help audience UNDERSTAND 60. Describe the characteristics of an appropriate or effective oral citation. The first citation should be complete, but the ones after that can be abbreviated Narrative Tips: 1. Choose a story that fits your audience 2. Make sure the story fits your purpose and illustrates a key point 3. Keep the stories concise 4. Practice telling your story 5. Do not read your story to your listeners 6. Be animated, even visual, when telling a story. 61. What are the types of visual aids that can be used during a speech? Visual aids can… Clarify difficult points, gain and maintain audience attention, enhance speaker credibility, improve your delivery, and be memorable. 1. Objects - Too big/too small? Can’t be live, illegal, etc. 2. Models (i.e. plastic model of human mouth) 3. Graphs - Dramatic visual impact - Can’t be too much information 4. Maps - Must be large and simple - Should be accurate 5. Tables - Easytounderstand comparisons - Can’t be messy/hastily made 6. Photographs - Needs to be enlarged 7. Drawings - Can’t be sloppy or hard to distinguish 62 . What are guidelines for the competent usage of visual aids? - Keep aids simple - Make them visible - Make them neat, attractive and accurate - Don’t block the audience’s view - Keep them close to you - Put it out of sight when not in use - Practice with aids - Don’t circulate your aids - Don’t talk in the dark (keep the lights on for videos/power points) - Anticipate problems
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