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Week 4

by: Victoria Notetaker
Victoria Notetaker

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Lecture notes for 02-09, no lecture 02-11 due to exam
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Al Dahwi
Class Notes
BIOL 2310
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Thursday February 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2311 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Al Dahwi in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 02/11/16
Chapter 4 Tissue: The Living Fabric Announcements:  If you have taken A&P 2 and passed Dr. Al-Dawhi needs a TA Refer to Table 4.1 p 126  Connective Tissue Proper: Dense o Regular o Irregular o Elastic  Fibrous connective tissue: due to predominant element being fibers Refer to figure 4.8 (d) dense regular p 132  Structural elements: o Predominant element: bundles of collagen fibers  Running parallel to each other and same direction  Ground substance: very little present o Cellular element: predominant cell is fibroblast (immature cell type responsible for the synthesis and release of  Found between the bundles  Function: o Structural elements provide high tensile strength (resistant to stressful forces, especially those applied to same direction as fiber bundles)  Location: o Tendon: made up of dense regular connective tissue attaches muscle to bone o Ligament: connecting bone to bone Refer to figure 4.8 dense irregular p 132  Structural elements: o Predominant element: bundles of collagen fibers  Thicker than the bundles in regular  Not in the same direction and not parallel to each other  Both regular and irregular same strength Refer to figure 4.8 (f) elastic pg. 133  Structural elements: o Predominant element: elastic fibers  Running same direction  Fibers made of elastin  Function: o Stretch ability and recoil like a rubber band  Location: o Part of the walls of the aorta (largest artery in body)  (Optional info) Stretches when pumping blood into circulation, recoiling maintains pressure necessary for pushing blood into circulation. o Elastic tissue that makes up background of lungs 2  Elastic tissue allows lung to expand when air is inhaled and recoil when air is exhaled Refer back to table 4.1  NOT INCLUDED in original exam outline  Special connective tissue: o Covering bone and cartilage when discussing skeletal system o WILL cover blood Refer to figure 4.8 (k) p 136  The blood is the most atypical connective tissue  Function: o Blood is associated with the transportation  Special connective tissue due to 2 major reasons: o Rises from mesangial tissue o Three structural elements of other connective tissue  Ground substance: nonliving fluid matrix (plasma)  Cellular elements:  Red blood cells: outnumber all other cells o Contain hemoglobin  Responsible for transporting 98.5% of our oxygen o Incomplete cells: no organelles of membrane 3  White blood cells (phagocytic cells that rid body of pathogens: o Monocytes o Neutrophil o Lymphocytes  Platelets: cellular fragments o Blood clotting  Fiber element:  Present HOWEVER, usually not apparent in the blood in normal conditions o Soluble fibrous material o Tissue damage fibrous proteins are activated to create fibrous mesh in blood clot  Attaches to the platelet plug  Membranes: o General features:  Consist of two tissue types  Simple organs Refer to figure 4.11 pg. 142 o Mucous membranes: wet membranes  Simple organ  Epithelium tissue resting on top of a layer of connective tissue proper  Structural:  2 tissue types 4 o Epithelium tissue:  Simple columnar  Stratified squamous o Connective tissue: Lamina Propria  Loose areolar connective tissue  Functional (optional info): lining of body cavities open to the outside environment  Mucous serves as a trapping medium from pathogens o If the pathogen penetrates the membrane it will be faced with the white blood cells in the connective tissue o Lymphocytes activated producing daughter cells: including mammary B cells, remember the pathogen for the future  Found in: o Digestive system o Respiratory system o Genital/urinary system: wet due to urine o Serous membrane:  Simple organ  Epithelium tissue resting on top of a layer of connective tissue proper  Serous fluid: hyaluronic acid  Structural: 5  Epithelium: o Mesothelium: Simple squamous epithelium tissue associated with serous membranes o Endothelium: simple squamous epithelium lining of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels  Connective tissue: o Loose areolar connective tissue  Exists in double layer sac that contain serous fluid  Functional: make up the lining for the closed ventral body cavities  Provide friction free movement of the organs in closed ventral cavities o Visceral: lines organ o Parietal: lines wall o Pericardium: heart o Pleura: lungs o Peritoneum: abdominal cavity o Cutaneous membrane: skin  Exception: Organ system Refer to Figure 5.1 skin structure p. 151  Epidermis  Dermis: collection of organs with similar purpose o Blood vessel: artery and vein (organ) o Muscle  Skin= integumentary system 6


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