Section 3 Notes
Section 3 Notes CRM 3343
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Juliane Notetaker on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRM 3343 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Kecia Johnson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Gender, Crime and Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Section 3 Notes Glossary o Acquaintance Rape: the victim knows who the perpetrator is; makes up the majority of rape/sexual assaults o Drugfacilitated Rape: an unwanted sexual act that occurs after the victim consumes drugs and alcohol, voluntarily or involuntarily o Incapacitated Rape: an unwanted sexual act that occurs after a victim voluntarily consumes drugs or alcohol o Rape: sexual intercourse under force, threat of force, or without legal consent of the individual o Samesex Sexual Assault: oftentimes refers to maleonmale assault, often due to limited research on womanonwoman sexual violence o Sexual Assault: term used for all forms of unwanted sexual activity other than rape; includes penetration by objects, sodomy, forced oral copulation, sexual touching, and other lewd acts o Spousal Rape: involves emotional coercion or physical force against a spouse to achieve nonconsensual sexual intercourse; often leads to sexual violence o Statutory Rape: sexual activity that is illegal because it involves someone who is not of legal age to consent o Stranger Rape: the perpetrator is unknown to the victim o Symbolic Assailant: a perpetrator who hides in the shadows waiting for the abduction, rape, or murder or unknown innocents. He or she will attack at random, is unprovoked, and is difficult to apprehend Book Notes o Historical perspectives on the sexual victimization of women Rape is one of the oldest crimes in the world Rape has different views based on the circumstances (the victim’s status) In many cases the victim was blamed The act of rape was limited to sexual intercourse and did not include other invasive acts such as sodomy or being penetrated by foreign objects Also limited the relationship between the victim and the offender Did not include samesex sexual assault Did not think of spousal rape as actual rape o Defining Sexual Victimization It has been limited to penilevaginal penetration by some states Not understanding what sexual assault is can confuse both victims, who may not consider what happened to them to be sexual assault, and perpetrators, who do not consider their acts to be criminal o Prevalence of Rape and Sexual Assault A sexual assault happens every 2 minutes One of the most unreported crimes are rape and sexual assault College campuses have higher rates of sexual assault 20%25% of women The more students drink or abuse drugs, the more likely they are to be victimized o Rape Myths Contributes to victim blaming Causes victims to not report their crimes to the police Used by offenders to justify their crimes Makes victims believe that their own decisions put them in danger in the first place Suggests that if a woman is raped, she needs to prove that she tried to stop the assault, have physical evidence Suggest that sexual assaults are always reported A table of Rape Myths is on page 89 of the textbook. It shows the various excuses that are used o Acquaintance Versus Stranger Assault Stranger rapes are not common Acquaintance rape is much more common and is underreported o DrugFacilitated Sexual Assault The substances used in this type of assault are: GHB (GammaHydrozybutyric acid) Ketamine Rohypnol (Flunitrazepam) Alcohol o Spousal Rape Was not considered actual rape Rape laws changed in the 1970s and 1980s In the year 1978, only 5 states saw marital rape as a crime o Iowa o Delaware o Nebraska o Oregon o New Jersey Emotional coercion was used more than physical force Victims of this crime are not normally identified as such o SameSex Sexual Violence Many rape theories involve men trying to control women Samesex cases usually consist of maleonmale assaults Women in homosexual relationships experience more physical violence than women in heterosexual relationships o Racial Difference in Sexual Assault Colored women and Caucasian women experience sexual assault differently Colored women were more likely to have a weapon used on them White women are more likely to be drunk In the Hispanic community, Latina women have the highest sexual assault rates o The Role of Victims in Sexual Assault Cases Factors that will increase the chances that a victim will report the crime Injury Fear of contracting HIV To prevent the offender from attacking another person To increase awareness in the community Cases are very difficult to prove, it’s rare to have the offender convicted and cases are “pleabargained to a lesser charge” (Mallicoat, p. 103).
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