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PSYCH100 Week 1 Notes (Ly)

by: Alicia Burtha

PSYCH100 Week 1 Notes (Ly) PSYC100010

Marketplace > University of Delaware > PSYC100010 > PSYCH100 Week 1 Notes Ly
Alicia Burtha
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About this Document

Notes cover week one (February 8 - February 12) lectures as well as a Chapter 1 summary.
General Psychology
Ly,Agnes Ruan
Class Notes
psych psych100 ly duel university of delaware week1 week 1 february8 february12 chapter1 chapter 1 outline lecture




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Burtha on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC100010 at University of Delaware taught by Ly,Agnes Ruan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
PSYCH100 Week 1: 2/8, 2/10, 2/12 February 8, 2016 In-class notes… Chapter 1 (at home) reading due February 9 Psychology – study of mental activity and behavior Psychologist – someone whose career involves understanding mental life or predicting behavior psychological science – the study, through research, of mind, brain, and behavior  Mind = mental activity (sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and touches as well as memories, thoughts, and feelings)  Behavior = totality of observable human actions Amiable skepticism – combination of openness and wariness, found in good scientists  Understanding research methods helps scientists understand findings Common Psychological research errors:  Ignoring evidence  Failing to accurately judge source credibility  Misunderstanding statistics  Seeing relationships that don’t exist  Making relative comparisons  Accepting after-the-fact explanations  Mental shortcuts  Failing to see self-bias Culture – the beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share common language and environment Nature/nurture debate – arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture Mind/body problem – a fundamental psychological issue determining if mind and body are separate or if the mind is simply the physical brain’s subjective experience Introspection – a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thought  Developed by Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism – an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components  Developed by Edward Titchener Stream of consciousness – a phrase coined by William James to describe each person’s continuous series of ever-changing thoughts Functionalism – an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior Evolutionary theory – a theory represented by the naturalist Charles Darwin; views history of a species in terms of the inherited, adaptive value of physical characteristics, of mental activity, and of behavior Adaptation – in evolutionary theory. The physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations Natural selection – in evolutionary theory, the idea that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environments have a selective advantage over those who do not Gestalt theory – a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from the sum of its constituent elements Unconscious – the place where mental processes operate below the level of conscious awareness Levels of Analysis  Biological analysis focuses on brain systems, neurochemistry, and genetics  Individual analysis focuses on individual differences, perceptions and cognition, and behavior  Social analysis focuses on the interpersonal behavior and social cognition  Cultural analysis focuses on thoughts, actions, and behaviors Psychoanalysis – a method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed Behaviorism – a psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing observable behaviors Cognitive psychology – the study of mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision-making  Cognitive neuroscientists study brain activity Cognitive neuroscience – the study of the neural mechanisms underlying thought, learning, perception, language, and memory Social psychology – the study of how people influence other people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions Personality psychology – the study of characteristic thoughts, emotions, and behaviors in people and how they vary across social situations  Study how genes, circumstances, and cultural context shape personality Other Subfields in Psychology Developmental psychology – study how people change across the life span Cultural psychology – understand how people are influenced by the societal rules that dictate behavior in the cultures in which they are raised Clinical psychology – factors that cause psychological disorders School psychology – problems that occur in educational settings Industrial/organizational psychology – study of behavior and productivity in industry and workplace Forensic psychology – legal settings Sports psychology – work with athletes to improve performance Health psychology – study factors that promote or interfere with physical health Chapter Summary: Practicing critical thinking skills improve how people think, and should be used when evaluating research. Errors in thinking and decision-making can result in faulty conclusions. Nature and nurture depend on each other. Brain and mind are one. Formal psychology began in1879 by Wilhelm Wundt in Germany. Structuralists used introspection to break down underlying components of conscious experience. Functionalists believe it is more important. Gestalt says the sum of the parts is different than the whole. Freud believes in subconscious impacts. Behavior is changed by consequence. People are powerful sources in shaping behavior. Psychological disorders are shaped by nature and nurture and there is no universal treatment. Culture norms specify how people should act, transmitted through learning. February 10, 2016 In class notes… Science of Psychology Psychological science – the scientific study, through research of:  Mind  Brain  Behavior (observable actions) Biological level of analysis – anything dealing with chemistry (genes in brain etc) Individual level of analysis – personal differences (memories, personality, gender) Social level of analysis – group contacts Cultural level of analysis – norms we have across a particular culture Mistakes in psychologist studies:  Ignoring evidence (confirmation bias)  Failing to accurately judge source credibility (backing up w/ evidence)  Misunderstanding and not using statistics  Seeing relationships that may not exist  Using relative comparisons (how information is framed)  Accepting the after-the-fact explanations (hindsight)  Mental heuristics (shortcuts)  Failing to see our own inadequacies Bias in the News: Just world fallacy  victim blaming  Strong belief that the world is inherently fair leading towards people blaming victims, people deserve what they get February 12, 2016 Classic foundations of psychology:  Nature/nurture  Mind/body o Initially treated as very separate, but today there is an interaction  Philosophy  science o Introspection – you can systematically talk about your experiences  Structuralism – conscious experience can be broken down into component parts  Functionalism o Mind is too complex to be broken down, must be looked at as a whole with interactions o Influenced by the theory of evolution  Gestalt – kept the notion that perception is still subjective and dependent on context o “Whole is not the sum of its parts” Contemporary foundations: Freud  behaviorism  cognitive  social psychology Freud  psychoanalysis (classic sit on the couch and talk things through)  emphasis on unconscious Behaviorism (Watson & Skinner)  emphasis on observable environmental behaviors Cognitive Revolution  Back to emphasis on mental functions Social Psychology  Power of situation, why people engage in certain things in social situations  Ex. WW2


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