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HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 8-12, 2016

by: Gabrielle Ingros

HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 8-12, 2016 HIST 1020

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 > HIST 1020 Donna Bohanan February 8 12 2016
Gabrielle Ingros
GPA 3.8

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These are the notes from the lectures given in class.
World History II
Dr. Donna Bohanan
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
February 8­12, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) ­­ World History II ­­ Dr. Bohanan NATIONALISM AND GERMAN UNIFICATION  There were two major groups of people in Europe who did not have their own  nation­state – Italians and Germans  After Napoleon’s fall, the Germans have 32 separate states  Nationalism becomes a political force in the 19  century o Nationalism: pride in one’s heritage, culture, country (emotional)  Language is a big part of nationalism [ethnicity is as well]  German Nationalism – already starting to emerge in the late 18  century o Herder – was early to say that the German people have a common culture, heritage, etc. and they should take pride in it; you should be proud to be  German o Fichte – like Herder, said everyone has their own Geist, but Fichte said the German Geist was superior to others   Geist = spirit  Napoleon’s empire stirred up this whole idea (nationalism usually revs up in the  context of conflict or when the people are being suppressed by another) o Stein and Hardenberg – government officials in Prussia during  Napoleon’s reign, started thinking they should reform themselves, thus  Nationalism gathers a Reformism idea, says they should create own  schools, citizen based army, etc.  Brandenburg/Prussia is ruled by one family: Hohenzollern  Austria is ruled by one family: Hapsburg  These states are rivals, and Prussia eventually pulls out the  win o Zollverein: a union of German states for economic purposes, customs  Goods flowed good within Germany but not outside (help  economy and industrial growth)  Prussia was involved but Austria was not (people looked more  towards Prussia)  Otto von Bismarck – the most important figure in German history between Martin Luther and Adolf Hitler, engineers German unification under Prussia, becomes  William Hohenzollern I’s chief minister, he was a Lutheran (wanted to promote  Hohenzollern and Protestantism) o Junker – Prussian nobility o Realpolitik – idea of Bismarck, you never embark on a course of action  that is irreversible (pragmatic/practical) o “Blood and Iron” – the great decisions of his day, blood and iron made  the decisions (military conflict and industrial might)  Bismarck knew he had to knock out Austria in order to unify Germany.  He starts by going to war with Denmark.  Schleswig and Holstein were two  territories under the control of Denmark.  Holstein is overwhelmingly German. February 8­12, 2016 o Bismarck asked Austria to go to war against Denmark with Prussia, but  the question is “who will rule Schleswig Holstein?”   This gave Bismarck the okay to go to war with Austria  7 Weeks War – Prussia defeated Austria handily  North­German Confederation – alliance with other German states, the nucleus of  a modern German state  o France did not want a united Germany because they worried that if the  Germans ever unified they would dominate Europe (France would be  overrun) – Bismarck needed to knock France out. o Spain overthrew their ruler and put a Prussian on their throne   Ems Telegram – Bismarck rewrites William I’s statement and  makes it a “shot” at France (the French bit and war out broke) o July 1870 – Franco­Prussian War  France was severely defeated, and a peace treaty was signed at the  Palace of Versailles:  Said France had to pay a huge fine to Prussia, French  Alsace­Lorraine becomes Prussian property, and William I  is crowned the King of Germany  1871 – Modern State of Germany    Imperialism: growth, expansion of a country (one nation) into other places,  exerting control over other peoples who are not your own o 1870 – expansion on the Africa continent and in Asia  Causes of Imperialism: o Economic – there are multiple reasons, capitalism, industrialism (saturated the existing markets), these countries go elsewhere looking for new  markets (they overproduced and now needed to dump their goods  somewhere), there is also a need for cheap, raw materials (came mostly  from subtropical places – rubber, tin, phosphates, oil, palm oil, cotton,  etc.), easier to get the goods if you controlled the places   Hobson – a British intellectual, said “this expansion is all about  economics, industrialization, need for new markets, and it is about  income and equality,” there was so much capital in the hands of  the upper middle class and so little in the hands of everyone else,  they needed new places to invest   Lenin – a Marxist theorist, called imperialism “the highest stage of  capitalism,” also acknowledged that capitalism tended to create  monopolies and cartels, left one business standing, nothing could  control it, there were no market forces anymore, thus people  looked outside their boarders o  Nationalism – it existed everywhere in the west in the late nineteenth  century, national pride ran over, wanted to expand their national honor,  glory, prestige, in 1871 when the modern state of Germany was created  and it created a balance of power, the more powerful the nation the less  February 8­12, 2016 likely others are to mess with you, everything becomes competitive (who  could gather the most colonies) o Careers – looking for jobs for middle class sons (especially the younger  sons who did not inherit family business), the idea was to create new  governments and thus new jobs  Racism – “The White Man’s Burden,” in the nineteenth century  there was a belief that white men had the duty to bring civilization  to nonwhite people, intellectuals wrote about this burden  Gobineau – tried to classify the peoples of the world, tried  to assign characteristics, qualities, and behaviors to  different people of the world, cranial capacity (said white  people were the best/smartest essentially) o Missionaries and Adventures – missionary work also contributed to the  new imperialism, people also hunted elephants for ivory in Africa  Buxton – wrote about the slave trade and how it needed to be  abolished (said you needed to bring Christianity to Africa and a  sort of “replacement” to slavery)  Livingstone – Christian missionary who explored regions in Africa  to try and end the slave trade, his expedition sparked interest in his  home nation – people wanted to seek economic revenue from  Africa  Stanley – American journalist, sensational journalism, sent him to  find Dr. Livingstone, wrote about it and stirred up more interest  about Africa about potential imperialism  King Leopold I – seized the Congo, hired Stanley to nail down a  series of agreements with chieftains (very manipulative), made it  his own proprietary colony, after this it was a free­for­all for  anyone to go in and take Africa  Technology of Empire – there are so many technological inventions of the time  that made it easy for Europeans and Americans to expand elsewhere o Steamships and Railroads – you didn’t have to worry about wind changes  with the steamship (you consistently were moving) you could get there a  lot faster, also meant you could go inland, and the railroads also helped  with better/faster communication and travel, served political advantage  (lets you send soldiers rapidly)  Suez Canal – connected Red Sea and Mediterranean (completed in  1869), was a huge deal because it made European trade with the  East much easier, communications were also much faster   Panama Canal – American built in Central America o Military Technologies – Europeans started the century fighting with  muskets (took too long to load/wasn’t accurate) but rifles came into  existence (more accurate/breech loading), Prussians used rifles against  Austrians in the 6 Weeks War, Machine Guns also became prevalent February 8­12, 2016  Battle of Omdurman (1898) – Britain vs. Sudan, used machine  guns, 3 hours of fighting o Medical Improvements – they were able to fight off malaria with quinine  (comes from bark of a particular tree/used in tonic water {Gin and Tonic})


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