BIOL 5600 Notes 2/11/16
BIOL 5600 Notes 2/11/16 BIOL 5600
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by LaurenC on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 5600 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Mendonća in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Biomedical physiology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Interneurons integrate, channel, modulate, and direct; they are crucial in the CNS function. 90% of neurons are interneurons. A reflex is polysynaptic The interneurons are finalizing info going to the effector. The excitatory interneuron causes the muscle to contract, and the inhibitory causes relaxation. Almost all of the skeletal muscles are in pairs (agonist, antagonist) The autonomic has two subdivisions: 1) Sympathetic- stimulatory 2) Parasympathetic- opposing response to stimulatory. Vegetative. -Don’t need excitatory/inhibitory neurons -Have pre (long) /post (short) ganglionic neurons The central gray -Made up of nuclei -Different nuclei handle different information -Dorsal is sensory, somatosensory (Touch, pressure, pain, temp) -Ventral is motor -The dorsal portion of the lateral horn is viscerosensory -The ventral portion of the lateral horn is visceromotor -All around are tracts Tracts A. Ascending tracts -Going up spinal cord -Carrying afferent info -Sensory input. 1. Spinothalamic tract -Carries coarse touch, coarse pressure >Anterior spinothalamic -Carries pain and temperature >Lateral spinothalamic 2. Spinocerebellar -Carries proprioception >The sense of where hour body is in space *Cerebellar is important with muscle coordination 3. Fasiculi Cuneatus 4. Fasiculi Gracilis -Both carry fine touch and pressure -Both carry proprioception B. Descending tracts - Efferent - Carrying motor commands - Going down spinal cord Corticospinal -Conscious motor commands -Pyramidal tract 2. Extrapyramidal -Outside the pyramidal -Carry subconscious commands (not autonomic) -“Tweaks” what the coritcospinal is doing i. Tectospinal tract- tetum -Moves head in reaction to sound and eyeballs track movement ii. Vestibulospinal -Muscle movements to maintain equilibrium -Unconsciously rocking oppositely of the boat you’re on iii. Rubrospinal -Red nucleus -Muscle coordination iv. Reticulospinal -Maintaining muscle tone and some stimulation of sweat glands The brain -Many neurons -One of the most metabolically active organs in body -2% of body weight -Uses 20% of O2 -Needs a lot of glucose as well -More than four minutes without O2, you get massive brain damage Anatomy of brain: -Sulci, grooves -gyri, gyrus, bumps -Together increase surface area -The more underdeveloped a brain/mammal is, the more of these to increase surf ace area Spinal cord Medulla oblongata Brainstem -parts of: >Pons (latin for bridge) (imp. in communication) (portion of brainstem) >Cerebellum (aids in function) (it too has gyri, sulci, and cerebellar hemispheres) Midbrain (some include as part of brain stem) Thalamus (upper) and Hypothalamus (lower) -above midbrain- collectively called diencephalon “paleocortex” (old brain) Very top is Cerebrum- telencephalon-neocortex –cerebrocortex- cerebral hemispheres Cerebrum 1) Lobes -External gray -Billions of unmyelinated neurons (many many nuceli) -There is a portion that is white matter -Central sulcus -Lateral sulcus >Landmarks by which we separate the lobes of the brain >Particularly deep grooves
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