notes29211.pdf History 1020
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Alex Phillips HISTORY NOTES: HIST 1020 Casteel 2.9.16 – 2.11.16 IMPERIALISM IN ASIA - Imperialism: one group dominating another - 2 kinds of imperialism o 1. Formal: colonization by military force o 2. Informal (business): dominating economy in charge of its economy spheres of influence - imperialism was a result of the Industrial Revolution INDIA – FORMAL IMPERIALISM - British East India Company o Began 1600 o Coast of India was an ideal place to set up trade ports o Taking advantage of weakness of Mughal Empire and conquering lands o Eventually take control -> India becomes formal colony - British India (new name for Mughal Empire) - De-industrialization of India o British put clothing manufacturers in India out of business and made them focus on growing cotton and using Indigo to color that cotton CHINA – INFORMAL IMPERIALISM - China made the best stuff, so they didn’t want/need British stuff; China just wanted their money (specifically silver) - Canton System - Illegal to trade in other cities in China other than Canton - Within Canton there were only 13 places trade was allowed o Could only trade with Hong merchants o Only trade silver (not stuff) - British setting up permanent posts in Canton so they began to understand the language and culture better o Effect: British found something the Chinese would buy - British bough tea from China o British population growth meant more tea = needed more $ o Silver shortage: British had to find something they could trade with besides silver; Answer= Opium The poppies that made opium came from India (Britain’s other colony) THE OPIUM TRADE - Chinese used it recreationally - It was outlawed b/c it caused illegal trade and fighting o Messing up Canton system o Opium trade was illegal: British smuggle opium into China b/c they still need tea - Opium stored in East India storehouses - Smuggled into Hong Kong - India is not getting anything out of this - 12 million people addicted -> becomes governmental issue o solutions: 1. dumping it in the sea (poisoned it first so people wouldn’t try to get it out); 2. Burned it (but people still got high from that); 3. Cut off trade completely with Britain; 4. Arrested anyone caught with it OPIUM WARS (2) - First Opium War 1839-1842 - Fought mostly on water b/c war was about trade not conquering land - Britain attacked cities on coast of China - British steam powered ships (a product of the Industrial Revolution) were far superior to Chinese ships - Treaty of Nanjing (unequal treaty) o China has to give $ for damage of Brit. Ships/property o China has to trade w/ British o Honk Kong was controlled by Britain o Extraterritoriality: do not have to obey (Chinese) laws in 5 port cities of China (areas of influence) o Canton System is gone SPHERE OF INFLUENCE - others also sign treaties with China (unequal) - definition: trade controlled by foreign nations - France, Britain, Germany, Japan, Russia o U.S. wanted an open door policy to trade - China not formally colonized but not completely free GREAT DIVERGENCE - Europe catches up and surpasses Middle East b/c of the Industrial Revolution - Separation of nations that were industrialized and those that were not o Colonizer vs. colonized o Industrial revolution and imperialism meet THE EMPIRE STRIKES BACK - connections b/w imperialism and nationalism - what is a nation? o Features of a nation: shared language, religion, history, and traditions INDIA - At this point, few British people living in India o Mainly military people o At the beginning, queen Victoria lets them be in India for the most part - British Raj: o Didn’t allow India to trade w/ anyone other than Brit. o Caused unrest: British started to need to “police” India o Hired Indian people to be soldiers (instead of bringing in own British people) o Called Sepoys; trained in military tactics by British - Turmoil Grows o Indian people tired of racism, and Brits trying to convert them NEW TECHNOLOGY - Enfield Rifle presented to Sepoys - Rumor that cartridge was lubricated with pig and cow fat; since they were mostly Hindu and Muslim, this was against their religion, because they had to put the cartridge in their mouths - Sepoys got angry b/c they thoughts it was a step to get them to convert to Christianity and leave their religion REVOLT AND REBELLIONS - Sepoy soldiers wouldn’t shoot the guns or use them - Stole guns from armory and Sepoys start shooting at British with Muskets (not accurate or fatal usually) - British have better, more powerful guns so rebellion didn’t last long - Rebellion: How Mutiny: How the the Sepoys view British view it - British bring in more troops b/c they taught the Sepoys how to fight and use weapons - Important b/c it brought a feeling of nationalism as Indians b/c they were against a common enemy INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS - what the British allowed them to have so they would be less likely to continue rebelling - only wealthy / elite Indians who owned land not owned by British MUSLIM LEAGUE - created to protect the rights of Muslims - Muhammad Ali Jinnah: Leader - Decided they needed to get British out GHANDI - Indian National Congress leader - Encouraged non-violence - Brit weak during this time b/c WWI - Seeds of nationalism CHINA - angry b/c spheres on influencest - series of rebellions after 1 Opium War TAIPING REBELLION - Hong Xiuquan: has dream that God tells him he is his adopted son and tells him to overthrow the Qing Dynasty - Millions of Chinese follow him b/c they are tired of Qing and foreigners - Start taking over cities so Qing call for help from the Europeans who live there o Europeans willing to help b/c if the followers overthrow the Qing, they will kick them out next - Europeans have superior technology so Qing and them then: about 30 million deaths (or more) - EFFECT: Qing weakened and there is an even worse hatred for foreigners in China THE BOXER UPRISING - Support Qing b/c they want to get rid of foreigners and everything foreign - Mostly peasants: skilled in martial arts - Righteous and Harmonious Fists – official name of the group - Attached everything the Europeans made (industrialized things) - Qing support them b/c they are weak and the boxers basically are doing what the Qing couldn’t b/c of their weakened status - 8 nations try to keep the rebellion from continuing o France, Japan, England, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, and U.S. o Invaded Beijing o Decided they needed to occupy China to stop the rebellions - Boxers had to sign Boxer protocol (Unequal treaty) o China pays $, 8 nations take Beijing, spheres of influence grow - EFFECT: people angry at Qing for letting it happen - China becomes weaker and poorer b/c $ paid for wars - People upset b/c hungry and poor (Civil wars break out because of this) - New groups form to stop humiliation of China, Qing, and foreigners REVOLUTION OF 1911 - Wuchang uprising overthrew Qing Dynasty o No more Dynasties st - China (now Republic of China) ruled by 1 president Sun YatSen o Promised people 1. Nationalism 2. Democracy 3. People’s livlihood
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