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Week 1 Notes

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by: Sherman Notetaker

Week 1 Notes ARTH389F

Sherman Notetaker

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First week of class notes
Special Topics in Art History and Archaeology; Classical Mythology in Renaissance Art, 1400-1700
Aneta Georgievska-Shine
Class Notes
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"I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Sherman delivered. Shoutout Sherman, I won't forget!"
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sherman Notetaker on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH389F at University of Maryland taught by Aneta Georgievska-Shine in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Special Topics in Art History and Archaeology; Classical Mythology in Renaissance Art, 1400-1700 in Art History at University of Maryland.


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I'm really struggling in class and this study guide was freaking crucial. Really needed help, and Sherman delivered. Shoutout Sherman, I won't forget!

-Ernest Rosenbaum


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Date Created: 02/12/16
st Ovid – 1 c AD Goltzius- must know Prometheus creating man Apollo carries sun throughout the day Minerva goddess of wisdom Rubens-Prometheus Liver is source of procreative power, blood was thought to be created there. IN Renaissance, liver is seen as organ that controls sexual/sensual powers. It is where our vital energy resides. One eagle claw goes toward genitals to underscore message that he will not procreate. Laacoon 2.9 Four ages of man – characterized by continuous declines from the age of … to the age or iron. The world used to be much better. “The Golden Age” – once upon a time everything was perfect > silver > bronze > iron Ovid felt he was living in the age of iron. Wrote about how he will usher in golden age again. Golden Age marked by rule of Saturn, father of Zeus/Jupiter, married to Rhea. Saturn eats his offspring to prevent them from deposing him. Rhea saves Jupiter who saves some more of his siblings. Saturn = Hebrew Saturnia = Juno, daughter of Saturn. Rubens -Saturn (1640) – High Baroque – dynamic, appeals to emotion, high point of narrative. Attempt to promote empathy, outrage, horror, fear etc. Saturn is grotesque, similar to Prometheus. Meant to disgust you, to impress on you how disgusting these actions of the gods were. Rubens also wanted it to be imprinted in memory. Holding a scythe – one of his key attributes, signifies governance over time. SCYTHE= Saturn, God of time. Starts decline of ages. When twisting and turning but still elegant, Narrative – Mannerism Torre De La Parada thHunting lodge outside Madrid. Decorated with paintings of Ovid. Burned in 18 century, but some paintings were saved. One of the decorative themes in the Parada was how gods misbehaved. Perhaps it was a political message towards the ruler (Philip IV of Spain) that he should not abuse his power. IT was still accepted despite being critical. Iron age – French ovid from 16 century – a lot of conflict rhoughout Europe in that century, seen as Iron age. Goltzius, Dutch draftsman, developed a whole series of images which were printed by many French printers. The Age of Gold – undifferentiated between god, humans and animals. There is also a sense of excess and sexual license. Couple touching under a tree overgrown with vines and grapes. Saturn overlooking everything. The Age of Silver – Jupiter surveys from the sky rather than Saturn. Saturn was banished from heaven and came to earth and taught people how to do agriculture. People are working. Women at home with wool, guys out farming. Character on right holding a cornucopia, signifies age of plenty, (goddess ops/Demeter – goddess of agriculture and seasons – always holds it). The Age of Bronze – In the foreground = Goddess Minerva/Athena. Complex divinity: born from head of Zeus (no mother), intelligence, war, craftsmanship> goddess of skill. The things is that skill can be used for good and bad ends. Background – helps build cities and ships, yet war is looming. Bronze age was typically use of skill for good things. Once people discovered hey could be used for bad, it was Iron age. The Giants Climbing of Heavens – This is the age of Iron – starts with war between gods and giants (Preempt men) P. 9 – He assumes background knowledge in the reader. Perino Del Vaga – Fall of the Giants Moral lesson to the people, do not try and usurp your leader. European leaders love this image and often had it in their waiting rooms in their palace. Mannerist artists love compositional complexity to the point of confusion. Michelangelo said to bring in the first mannerist ideas to Rome. Unnatural contortionist of forms (artist trying to show you how good they are at foreshortening) = mannerism. But this painting does scare you as much as the Saturn painting. Guilio Romano – in the room of the giants. In Mantua, ruled by the Gonzaga family. The Palazzo del Te was on the outskirts of the city. This room is not a dome but is one of the first illusionist paintings. Romano was very interested in Roman frescoes that were being discovered. Interested in statuary and his figures reflect that : emphasis on anatomy, pronounced musculature. Attepmts to create paintings infused with spirit of antiquity. (there is a term for this that I missed in class) Romano on threshold between High Renaissance and Mannerism. See Mannerism in contortion of bodies, departure from ideals of balance, symmetry and harmony. About excess. Exaggerated style. More interested in proving how good they are then in telling the story (Maybe). The giants do not look heroic, they are grotesque. Do not feel tragic, or a sense of pity the way you do for Saturn’s baby or Prometheus. Giants are depicted as barbaric brutes as a moral lesson for subjects. Goltzius – Zeus turning Lycaon into a wolf A lot of narrative detail bc mannaerist(many levels ie the purse in the corner beneath Lycaon). Moral of story, when Lacaoon is visited by Jupiter he tries to judge and does not listen. A baby being killed and devoured, to remind you of Saturn and his baby. Infanticide/patricide often used as a theme to express aberration of man. Expulsion of Lycaon symbolizes crime among men, in response Jupiter sends the flood to cleanse the Earth of men. Ruben-Lycaon Shows the High point in the story because more Baraoque, not Mannerist. It is the moment of transformation just as Lycaon is changed into a wold. Baroque artists love showing the moment in the change of the fortune of the protagonist. Slide: The Deluge – right behind Lycaon is another story of two people, Deucalion and Pyrrha. The further you go back in the page, the further along in the narrative. In Baroque/Renaissance chronology is represented by moving farther into the background. Tintoretto - Deucalion and Pyrrha These two were asked to recreate mankind after the flood. (Line 363) Hihglights Mannerism/Renaissance – extreme forshortening, enhanced musculature. Went to Oracle to see what to do – but oracles always give you confusing messages. Told ot throw behind them the stones of hteir mother. They understand this to mean rocks – Ovid reminds us that we came from soil, not other substances. Castiglione – Pyrrha and Deucalion At the temple. Strange creatures underneath call to mind Romano’s giants. Might no be a direct quote, but showing threshold between human form and nature’s own amorphasis. Character being squashed by rocks – creation and destruction at the saem time. Maybe reminding you of story of giants, so there is some grotesquery. Or about art through creation… painting is ambivalent. Some characgers are unidentifiable. This moment is between destruction and recreation 2.11.2016 Artists don’t paint Ovid, they interpret it Peter Paul Rubens - Deukalion & Pyrrha A study, not a complete portrait, sent to workshop in another country. How does Rueben’s inflect the story? Loves showing transformations, in between state. Some of the humans are still undifferentiated from the ground while others are more complete. New couple coming into being – to repopulate the world because D&P cant they are too old. There is a little boat in the back, the new couple comes out of Noah’s ark to renew the race. - No matter how powerful humans will become, we should not pry too much into nature. It contains mysteries that can not be known to man kind. Sandy’s – fables are seen as veiled and poetic essential stories of Christianity Robert Burton – without love there is no art Rubens - Apollo and Python Cupid shooting Apollo – Apollo looks a little caught off guard. Body is unstable and vulnerable (naked), even though it’s a nude it doesn’t look masterful and strong and in control of itself. Most famous Apollo statues excavated during the renaissance and displayed on the Belvedre in Rome. (There were many sculptures placed there.) They were copied over and over and mentioned in literature. The drapery in Rubens’ Apollo and Python is reminiscent of Apollo Belvidere. Except the Belvidere is majestic and Rubens makes it human. Just as Ovid makes the gods human. Henrik Goltzius – Apollo Killing Python Adds drama because the arrow is in the air. And there are a lot of arrows already in the dragon as if it was a very hard battle. Why a dragon, not a snake? In Renaissance iconography – people of the time would see a dragon and think of St. George who killed the dragon. It was an accommodation to the culture of the time by using Christian references. Highly dynamic and symmetrical. Two very dynamic figures on left and right. Continous narrative Ovid – first time Renaissance people could read something with such intimate human emotion (really?),poetic passionate feelings – reading about love Theme: Beautiful women are punished for the beauty, often raped by gods Story of Daphne: Triumph of god over human. Apollo gets Daphne in the end, even though she is a tree. Gods often triumph over women, they are victmims, that was just the way of life Pablo Veronese, Apollo and Daphne – Venetiain painting, wants to depart from creepy stuff and make it look more like a girl running in the forest, not the creepy tree transformation. Gian Lorenzo Bernini –Apollo and Daphne – arguably most talented sculptor of the early modern era after Michelangelo. Infused with dynamism and energy, everything invested int eh moment of transformation. Created for Cardinal Borgeze, an important patron. One of the great art collectors of the period. Wants to show how the triumph of the past leads to defeat. Bernini’s accomplishment was to make the marble feel like flesh. By doing this so well he is doing a metamorphosis like Ovid, turning inanimate stones into living beings. Apollo’s face closely resembles the Belvedere – is continuing antiquity, but building on it. This is the next moment of Apollo’s stpry


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