Test 2 outline
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Anthropology 1010- Diane Ciekawy Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Norris on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Philosophy 1010 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Lent in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Completed Study Guide Central Dogma of Genetics Genes DNA (transcription) mRNA (translation) Protein Concordance The presence of a trait in both members of a pair of identical twins. Discordance The presence of a trait in only one member in a pair of identical twins. Genotype Individual’s genetic material, can be seen as an allele. Phenotype Observed and measurable characteristics, or traits. Heritability Proportion of variance contributed to genetic factors. Ex) If heritability of IQ in a sample is .60, 60% of IQ is attributed to genes. Schizophrenia o Life time risk for general population1.6% o If sibling is diagnosed9% o If fraternal twin is diagnosed17% o If identical twin is diagnosed48% Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities Difference in structure of a chromosome. Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities Difference in number of chromosomes within sample. Trisomy= extra. Monosome= missing. Karyotype Description of chromosomal diagram. 1) Number of chromosomes 2) Gender 3) Abnormality, if any. Ex) Normal girl 46, XX. Sensation An observable stimulus. Perception The recognition of the observation of an observable stimulus. Absolute Threshold Minimum stimulus intensity for an organism to perceive the sensation 50% of the time. Signal Detection Theory Four different possibilities based on presence or absence of stimulus condition and subject’s response. o Hit, Miss, False Alarm, Correct Rejection Subliminal Perception Below threshold of conscious perception; subconsciously perceive. Can have extremely slight effects on conscious. Sensory Adaptation Gradual decline in sensitivity to a prolonged stimulus. Consistent sensation can get below conscious perception level. Vision o Wavelength Affects perception of color or hue. o Amplitude Affects perception of brightness. o Purity How varied the mix between color and brightness is. o Saturation Amount of whiteness, as whiteness decreases, saturation (intensity) increases. o Eye Cornea Transparent window where light enters. Lens Crystalline structure behind cornea that focuses light. Iris Colored muscle that surrounds pupil, allows constriction/dilation. Retina Neurotissue along back of the eye that receives signal and transmits to optic disc. (Retina to optic disc to optic nerve to thalamus to primary visual cortex in occipital lobe) Rods facilitate vision in dim light Cones facilitate vision in day light as well as color. Pupil o Nearsightedness When focus point of light falls short of retina. o Farsightedness When focus point of light falls beyond retina. o Visual pathwayRetina to Optic Disc to Optic Nerve to Thalamus to Primary Visual Cortex in Occipital Lobe. o Reversible Figure A drawing that is compatible with two interpretations, can switch back and forth. o Bottomup Processing Theory that we look at specific elements of any stimulus and combine the elements to perceive the whole. Feature Analysis Process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form. o Topdown Processing Theory that we perceive the whole of a visual stimulus initially, then break down its elements. o Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization Proximity allows you to see rows and not columns because of spacing Closure supply the missing elements of a picture Similarity different dots with similar colors to form a picture Simplicity break down (two objects over lapping) Continuity would rather see the continuous flow rather than a curve o Pictorial cues to depth Linear perspective Parallel lines moving towards a single point. Texture gradient the closer up the easier to tell what the image is Interposition Overlapping of objects to show distance. Relative size Objects that are closer are larger in relative size. Height in plane Lower object on visual plane is clear. Light and shadow Shading of light and dark to display form. Hearing o Wavelength Affects pitch. o Amplitude Loudness. o Air pressure Clarity/Sound Quality. Purity, Timbre o Cochlea where the auditory sensor are located, hearing part Taste o Five primary tastes are Sweet, Sour, Bitter, Salty, Savory. Smell o Olfactory Cilia Receptors, around 350. Enable humans to distinguish 10,000 different odors. Live around 3060 days. o Olfactory pathway Doesn’t go through thalamus. Consciousness Awareness of internal and external stimuli. Measured by self report, measured behavior, or brain waves. o Subjective and private, dynamic, selfreflective o EEG measures brain waves in cycles per second (cps). Beta waves awake and alert. Alpha waves drowsy. Theta waves light sleep. Delta waves Deep sleep. o Circadian Rhythms Biological rhythms, can pertain to certain levels of consciousness. Periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning Blood pressure, core body temp, etc. o Jet Lag Exposure to light affects Suprachiasmatic nucleus in hypothalamus. This signals to the pineal gland to raise or lower melatonin, and in this case decreases melatonin which increases alertness and body temp. Fluctuations in melatonin Lower in the day, higher in the night. Easier to travel west rather than east. o Sleep Beta, alpha, theta, sleep spindles, delta Stages 1) Theta Waves Light sleep. 2) Sleep Spindles Begin deeper sleep. 3) Delta Waves appear. 4) Delta Waves dominate pattern. REM Associated with dreaming, some Beta wave pattern. Physiological manifestations can reach day time levels. Infants sleep 1416 hours, and 50% of that in REM. Adults sleep 8 and 25% in REM. Slowwave sleep o Sleep Disorders Dyssomnias (disturbance in amount, timing and amount) and Parasomnias (Disturbances in arousal and stage transitions) Insomnia most common sleep disturbance, difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep. 1/3 of population reports symptoms in a given year. 25 40% of children have it at some point. Comorbid with depression. Nightmare Repeated awakening from REM sleep, with detailed recall of bad dream. Rapidly become alert and oriented, involving threats to self of any kind. Night/Sleep Terror Recurrent awakening from nonREM sleep. Intense fear and signs of autonomic arousal, unresponsive to efforts to comfort, no recall. Sleepwalking Repeated episodes of rising from bed during nonREM sleep and walking about. Unresponsive but can be awaken, amnesia for the episode. Primarily a problem in children, person doesn’t need to leave bed in mild cases. o Substance Dependence Tolerance Need for increased amounts to achieve desired effects. Withdrawal Physiological, cognitive response to prolonged absence. Other criteria: Substance taken in larger amounts than intended. Persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to cut down/quit. Life dominated by obtaining, using, recovering. Withdraw from family, social aspects. Use with knowledge of damage/suffering. o Substance Abuse Failure to fulfill major obligations. Use in/during hazardous situations. Substance related legal problems. Continued use despite recognized problems. o Narcotics (opiates, heroin, morphine) reduces pain, induces sleep, overwhelming sense of euphoria. Withdrawal symptoms abdominal cramping, nausea, vomiting, etc… o Depressants (sedatives; alcohol, barbiturates) Decreased Central Nervous system activity. Decreased arousal and increased relaxation. Withdrawal (alcohol) sweating, increased heart rate, insomnia, hand tremors. o Stimulants (Amphetamines, Cocaine, Nicotine, Caffeine) Alert, energetic, increased arousal. Withdrawal (nicotine) Irritability, frustration, anger. Increased weight and hunger. Restlessness. Withdrawal (cocaine) Vivid and unpleasant dreams, fatigue, increased appetite. o Hallucinogens Distortion of sensory perceptions. Cannabis Lasts 23 hours, increased hunger, heart rate, sense of well being. Learning Relatively durable change in behavior/knowledge due to an experience. o Classical Conditioning Stimuli Response conditioning. Pavlov Pavlov’s Dog o Unconditioned stimulus leads to unconditioned response. o Neutral stimulus leads to no response. o Neutral stimulus + Unconditioned stimulus = Conditioned Stimulus. o Conditioned Stimulus leads to Conditioned response. o Acquisition Initial stage of learning due to repeated pairings. o Extinction The loss of learning. o Spontaneous Recovery conditioned response becomes weaker but can be recovered if offered food again o Higherorder conditioning Conditioned response to accompanied stimulus. Watson Little Albert o Subsequent pairing of little mouse and loud, scary noise. o Albert became conditioned to fear mouse. o Albert generalized fear to other subjects that were similar to the mouse. Operant Conditioning The learning of volunteer behaviors. Thorndike’s Puzzle Box o Law of Effect Actions followed by pleasurable consequences tend to be repeated. Actions followed by unpleasant consequences tend not to be repeated. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Voluntary behavior is operant behavior, and the learning of such behavior is operant conditioning. o Skinner Box a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled. Shaping Reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of the desired response. o Cumulative Recorder Creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner box as a function of time. Reinforcement Anything that when following a response, causes that response to be more likely to happen again. Strengthens responses. o Primary Reinforcers Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs. o Secondary Reinforcers Events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary. Ex) Verbal praise, money. Positive Reinforcement A pleasurable consequence, or some kind of addition. Negative Reinforcement Following a response with the removal/escape of something unpleasant. Ex) Aspirin to relieve pain. Punishment Anything that, when following a response, causes the response to be less likely to happen again. Weakens Responses. o By Application (Spanking) or by Removal (Grounding) Patterns of Reinforcement Continuous Causes rapid learning, but is rarely possible in real life. Also quickly extinguished. Intermittent Responses are sometimes reinforced. Initial learning may be slower, but produces greater resistance to extinction. Reinforcement Schedules o Ratio Certain numbers of responses are required for each enforcer. Fixed Number of responses always the same. High, steady responding until reinforcement is delivered. Variable Number of response always changes. High, steady, and rapid response due to uncertainty. Ex) Slot machine. o Interval Timing of the response dictates reinforcement. Fixed Reward received after fixed interval of time. Response rate goes up just before reinforcer. Ex) Tests Variable Response time before reinforcement changes. Steady response rate. Ex) Texting, pop quiz, fishing.
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