Week of 2/15-2/219 Adolescent Psychology
Week of 2/15-2/219 Adolescent Psychology Psy 120-020
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 120-020 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Raquel Akillas in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Cognitive Development Jean Piaget – Swedish Spoke French Open interview to test kids In Graduate school, broke protocol asked why the children chose their answer Kids do not like to reason like adults Found a consistent pattern in reasoning - Based on age We form schemata - Organized pattern of thoughts Ex. Spider web in head, lots of connections 2 steps to form schemata 1. Assimilation a. To become similar, blend b. Apply an old schema to a new experience Stereotyping - Kids call a “cow” a “dog” (first thought when first seeing a cow after seeing a dog all of their life) - All teens are rebellious, out of control - All boys want sex - All girls are emotional 2. Accommodation a. To adjust your thinking b. When a schema no longer fits, it creates a disequilibrium (disturbance) c. Disequilibrium forces you to create a new schema Ex. Learning difference of animals as a kid Piaget’s Stage Model 1. Sensorimotor Stage (birth – age 2) a. Learning through 5 senses b. Learn to coordinate motor skills 1. Voluntary muscle movements c. Learn cause and effect 2. Preoperational Stage (age 2- 7) a. Operation – mental processes that can be reversed. Before a child can reverse there thinking, no logic. b. Egocentrism – can’t take another’s perspective 1. Not selfish Ex. hit another kid, stealing toys, and standing in front of the TV c. Animism – belief inanimate objects have feelings 1. Don’t say “you should’ve known better” Ex. Mascots are real, pet rocks 3. Concrete Operational (age 7-11) a. Reason in concrete logical ways Ex. Santa isn’t real b. The mastery of conservation puts a child in this stage 1. Matter stays the same despite change in form or container c. Conservation of Number 1. 5 bunnies in a line vs. 5 bunnies spread out 2. Kids choose spread out bunnies because it is longer d. Conservation of Mass 1. One ball of play dough vs. One ball flattened play dough 2. Kids choose ball because it is bigger e. Conservation of Volume 1. 2 liquids of the same amount, one in a glass and one in a bowl 2. Kids choose glass because it is taller f. Use real props, real things when explaining things 4. Formal Operational (age 11 and up) a. Reason in abstract and logical ways 1. Who are my real parents? 2. Does god exist? 3. Grief of parent who died at a young age 4. Right-handed world b. Metacognition – after thought 1. Inner reflection of how you organize, store, and retrieve facts 2. Learning beyond memorization c. Hidden meaning in language 1. Puff the Magic Dragon 2. Song lyrics, poems, and Shakespeare 3. Sarcasm a. “that was smart” d. Hypothetical- Deductive reasoning 1. Systematically test solutions to a problem 2. Can defend/explain their answer 3. Pendulum problem a. Assesses if they reached formal operational stage b. Questions asked: 1. What determines the speed the pendulum swaying back and forth? 2. The weight? 3. The length of the string? 4. The height from which it is dropped? Adolescent Egocentrism Focus on self The want for people to like you The want for a boyfriend/ girlfriend Teens trying to figure out who they are Trying to fit in Individuation - Own person - Own friends - Own style - Not like people Two Types: 1. Imaginary Audience a. Center of attention b. Everyone is judging c. “Everyone will see my zit” d. Perfection 2. Personal Fable a. “no idea what I’m going through” b. No one can relate c. Unique life experience d. Others can’t understand how they feel e. Optimistic Bias 1. “it won’t happen to me” 2. “I can text and drive” 3. Accidents, disease, misfortune won’t happen to them a. Unprotected sex b. Drink and drive c. Text and drive d. Drug experimentation Current Research on Piaget Stage Sequences - Everyone follows them Stage Ages - Too conservative - Kids younger than 7 have logic - Earlier than Piaget said Formal Operations - Not applied to every part of life - Pushed to further thoughts - Depends on life exposure/ experience Piaget and Education Development comes from internal forces Innate drive to learn Kids are naturally curious and want to learn Need to find material that will interest and challenge them Allow kid to advance at own pace Encourage interaction in an equal level Do not be the ultimate authority Leads to passive learning Kid will not trust their own instincts or ability to think on their own Favors student directed instruction Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory - the culture you come from - family and environment - thinking begins with social interaction Interested in how cultures transmit thinking from one generation to the next Kids learn through dialogue and activities with adults and more advanced kids Zone of Proximal Growth - tasks that challenge the kid - give tasks that they can’t do on their own Upper Limit XXXXXXXXXXXXX Zone of Proximal Growth XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Lower Limit Zone of Proximal Growth - find tasks near the upper limit - assess student by what they can do with assistance, not what they can do on their own Scaffolding - guidance or support - show to do a math problem - give hints - ask leading questions - play devil’s advocate (the use of opposing view for discussion) Vygotsky and Education Development comes from external forces such as parents Teach through assisted performance Reciprocal Teaching - students becomes teacher of peer - “look…. Now you do it” - Adults should challenge child’s upper limit - Push the child to advance - Focus on child’s potential and future capabilities - Favors teacher directed instruction Moral Development Freud’s Theory We are not born with morality Born pure ID - Pleasure seeking component of personality - “just do it” “I want this now” Age 2 Ego develops - Sense of self - Can make own decisions now - I am my own person Age 5 Superego develops - Do right thing, morality tells you if you’re a good/bad person Child internalizes parent’s standards of right and wrong Piaget’s Theory Observed children playing marbles and asked: - About the rules and changing them - Cheating? - Punishments Age 4-12 Morality is a qualitative difference in thinking Piaget’s Teacup Question - Little boy helping his mom, accidentally breaks 15 teacups - Another boy, is told he cannot have a cookie until after dinner. He reaches up on counter to steal a cookie before dinner and breaks one teacup. - Which boy was naughtier? - Kids choose the boy who broke 15 teacups because he broke more teacups. Even though stealing a cookie and breaking a teacup is worse. Two stages 1. Heteronomous Morality a. Right or wrong b. Age 4-7 (before age of logic) c. Look at consequences of behavior d. Not intentions of actor e. Moral realism – rules and laws are made by god or adults. (unchangeable) f. Immanent Justice – if they are bad, they will be punished 2. Autonomous Morality a. Age 10-12 b. Think on their own c. Consider intentions of actor d. Rules and laws are created by man (can be changed)
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