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PSY 260, Week 1 Notes

by: Emily Smith

PSY 260, Week 1 Notes PSY 260 01 (Psychology, Lifespan Development)

Emily Smith
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Week 1 notes of Lifespan Development: Some topics covered: Intro Theories of Development Research Methods Genetics
Lifespan Development
Dr. Joyce
Class Notes
PSY 260, lifespan development




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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Smith on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 01 (Psychology, Lifespan Development) at Murray State University taught by Dr. Joyce in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at Murray State University.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
PSY206 Life Development – Dr. Joyce Week 1 How alike are we?  A. Every person is like every other person: a. Example­ All people have feelings. B. Every person is like some other person: a. Example­ A person may react to a specific situation in a  way that is similar to another person’s reaction. b. Example­ Say you get fired from a job, there are many  ways you could react, such as throwing a fit or keeping  your composure, but regardless of how you react, there has been someone who has reacted in a similar fashion to  yours in the past. C. Every person is like no other person (unique): a. Example­ Everyone has a different personality. b. Example­ No two people look exactly the same (including  twins  scars, hair cut, fashion sense, etc..) Life­span Perspective A. Examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior  from conception until death: a. Physical development b. Cognitive development c. Personality development d. Social development e. Emotional development Why is adult development important? B. Developmental change occurs during adulthood as well as  childhood. C. Growth and Decline occurs Life Expectancy  vs. Life Span A. Life Span:  a. Maximum observed time living in a population  Rarely  changes B. Life Expectancy: a. # of years one is expected to life  varies on many factors  including year and country of birth Jean Calment A. Born in 1875 in France B. Outlived children and grandchildren C. Died at 122 years old D. As of current records, Jean has lived the longest recorded life Characteristics of the Life­Span Perspective A. Lifelong B. Multidimensional C. Multidirectional D. Plastic E. Contextual F. Multidisciplinary Developmental changes are as a result of biological, cognitive and  socioemotional processes: A. Prenatal period: 9 months B. Infancy:  birth  18­24 months C. Early childhood: 2  5 years 2 D. Middle childhood: 5  11 years E. Adolescence: 10  12 to 18  21 years F. Early adulthood: 20s  30s G.Middle adulthood: 40s  50s H. Late adulthood: 60s to 70s  death  Marked by serious development in person Developmental theory issues A. Continuous change vs. Discontinuous change a. Continuous – done gradually  i. Example: 1 month = 10 words ii.  2 months = 15 words b. Discontinuous – done in stages i. Example: 10 words  100 words  10,000 words B. Critical period vs. Sensitive period a. Critical – If you don’t learn something by age 3, you won’t  learn it at all b. Sensitive – There are some ages where learning  something will be easier but not absolutely necessary C. Nature vs. Nurture Significance of age A. Chronological age – Calendar age B. Biological age – biological health age a. Young  healthy b. Old  unhealthy i. Example: Someone who is 27 in their chronological  age but 80 in their biological age is extremely  unhealthy ii. Example: Someone who is 80 in their chronological  age but 27 in their biological age is extremely healthy 3 C. Psychological age – maturity; ability to adapt to surroundings D. Social age – age in comparison to social milestones of peers  a. A teen mom in comparison to a 30 yr. old mom are similar  in social age Theories of development A. Theory: explain phenomenon; makes predictions B. Theories of life­span development: a. Psychodynamic: psychoanalytic b. Behavioral: conditioning c. Cognitive: info processing d. Humanistic: person­centered e. Contextual: bioecological f. Evolutionary Psychoanalytic: Freud A. Primary focus: unconscious childhood experiences, sexual  stages B. How Development Proceeds – Motivated by inner force C. Principles – id, ego, superego a. Id – pleasure  “Gimme NOW!” b. Ego – middle ground or compromise c. Superego – morals  delay satisfaction for the benefit of  others Freudian Stages A. Oral Stage – birth – 1 ½ years  enjoys putting things in mouth B. Anal Stage – 1 ½ ­ 3 years  dislikes holding in bowel  movements C. Phallic Stage – 3 – 5 years  discovers genitals D. Latency Stage – 5 years – puberty 4 E. Genital Stage – puberty onward  healthy sexually Psychodynamic: Erikson A. Primary Focus: social interactions with others B. How development proceeds: through changes in interactions  with others C. Principles: 8 stages, discontinuous Behavioral Theories  A. Watson a. Perspective i. Observable behavior b. How development proceeds: i. Continuous exposure to specific environmental  factors c. Principles i. Classical Conditioning 1. Example: Albert and the rat a. This was an experiment where Albert was  taught to associate the rat with fear  because every time he was introduced to  the rat, a loud sound was made behind  him, causing him to be afraid.  This was  repeated until he became afraid of the rat. B. Skinner a. Primary Focus i. Observable behavior b. How development proceeds i. Positive and negative consequences c. Principles  i. Reinforcement 5 ii. Punishment iii. Extinction d. Behavior modification C. Bandura a. Theory i. Social Cognitive Theory b. Primary Focus i. Imitation c. How development proceeds i. Observation of others d. Principles: i. Social­Cognitive learning occurs through: 1. Perceiving model’s behavior 2. Recalling the behavior 3. Accurately reproducing the behavior Cognitive Perspectives A. Jean Piaget a. Primary Focus i. Cognitive Processes b. How development proceeds i. Human thinking is organized in mental patterns that  represent behaviors and actions AKA schemas c. Principles i. Schema ii. Assimilation and accommodation d. 4 different stages i. Sensorimotor Stage (infancy) ii. Preoperational Stage (2­7 years) iii. Concrete Operational Stage (7­11 years) iv. Formal Operational Stage (11 onwards) Information Processing Approach 6 B. Primary Focus a. Cognitive memory Cognitive Neuroscience Approach C. Primary Focus a. Brain Processes D. How development proceeds: a. Focus specifically on neurological processes i. Thinking, problem­solving, etc.. b. Seeks to ID actual functions Humanistic A. Rogers and Maslow a. Primary Focus i. Individual’s ability and motivation to reach advanced  maturity levels ii. Reach full potential b. How development proceeds i. Everyone has a desire to be loved and respected ii. Self­actualization c. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs i. Triangle – from top (least important) to bottom (most  important)  Self­actualization, Esteem Needs, Social  Needs, Safety Needs, Physiological needs Bioecological Approach: B. Urie Bronfenbrenner a. Primary Focus i. Interconnectedness of the influences on development b. How development Proceeds 7 i. Development is unique and tied to social and cultural  context c. Principles i. Each system contains roles, norms and rules ii. Parents influence child’s behavior and vice versa d. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory: i. 5 different levels 1. Microsystem 2. Mesosystem 3. Exosystem 4. Macrosystem 5. Chronosystem Sociocultural Perceptive: Vygotsky C. Primary Focus a. Learning what is important in society through play D. How Development Proceeds a. Social reactions between members E.  Principles a. Transaction between children and those that are in their  environment Evolutionary Perspective A. Darwin’s “Survival of the Fittest” B. Includes behavioral genetics a. Quickly growing fields b. How we inherit behavioral traits and how the environment  influences if we displays those traits and how we display  those traits Psychologists take pieces of each theory 8 A. How well does and 8 year old solve a riddle? a. Take from the cognitive neuroscience & the info process  theories Research Methods B. Theory: Broad explanations of phenomena a. Organize knowledge, guide research C. Model: Represent elements of a theory D. Hypothesis: Theory based predictions a.  Scientific Method i.  Identify Question ii.  Formulate Explanation iii.  Carry Out Research b.  Correlational Research i.  Finding strength of a relationship between on variable and another ii.  Measures strength and direction 1. ­1: Perfect negative correlation 2. 0: No relationship present 3. 1: Perfect positive correlation c. Spurious Correlation i.  Two variables that aren’t related being compared 1. Example: Marriage rate being high vs. Death  rate by fishing accident being high d. Types of Correlational Studies i.  Naturalistic observation ii.  Case Studies (HM) iii.  Survey Research iv.  Psychophysiological Methods 1. EEG, PET scan, FMRI, CAT/CT scan Determining Cause and Effect A. Experiment 9 B. Groups a. Treatment/ experimental b. Control C. Variables a. Independent (IV) b. Dependent (DV) D. Example: a. Participants randomly assigned b. IV: Experimental group (aerobic exercise) vs. Control group (No aerobic exercise) c. DV: Newborns breathing and sleeping patterns E. Experiments vs Quasi Experiments a. Experiment: random assignment to experimental groups: i. Example: examining effect of drug dosages b. Quasi Experiment: lacks random assignment to experiment group i. Example: examining the effects of gender ii. Example: survivors of rape of chosen, not forced F. Selecting a Sample a. Goal: generalize sample to population b. Random subject selection on basis of chance i. Different from random assignment ii. Must define population and develop method to  randomly assign iii. Types of sampling 1. Probability  equal chance a. Random 2. Non­Probability  non­equal chance a. Convenience G. Choose Research Setting a. Field study i. Captures behavior in real­life settings ii. Difficult to control situation b. Lab Study 10 i. Hold events constant ii. Controllable iii. Unnatural behavior H.  Time Span of Research a. Cross­sectional Approach i. Individuals of different ages compared at once b. Longitudinal Approach i. Same individuals studied over period of time c. Sequential Study i. Combination of both I. Ethics in Research a. Protects Participants from Harm in Research b. Informed Consent from Participants c. Use of deception must be justified and it must not cause  harm to participants d. Maintains privacy J. Becoming an Informed Consumer of Development a. Is the source reliable? i. Peer­reviewed Journal vs. Wikipedia K. Code of Life a. Genes L. Genetic Variation a. Independent assortment of alleles i. 50% mom, 50% dad M. Chromosomal Crossover a. Genetic info gets changed from crossover N. Genetic Mutation a.  Radiation, pollution Basics of Genes A. Dominant and Recessive genes B. Genotype: combination of genetic material a. Outwardly invisible b. Example  Mutation for Sickle Cell Anemia? Genotype. 11 C. Phenotype: a. Outwardly Visible b. Example  Mutation for Blue Eyes? Phenotype. D. Humans have 25,000 genes! E. All humans share 99.9% of genes F.  Behavioral Genetics G.When Development Deviates a. Causes i. Physical damage ii. Spontaneous mutation iii. Environmental upset 1. X­ray, air pollution b. Consequences i. Down Syndrome ii. Fragile X Syndrome iii. Sickle­Cell Anemia H. Genetic Counseling a. Prenatal Testing I. Interaction of Heredity a. Behavior not solely determined by either genetic or  environmental factors.  Requires both. J. Determinants of IQ a. Genetics play an important role in the influence of IQ. To  what degree is still argued. b. Environmental factors (proper education, book exposure,  etc.) also play an important role in the development of IQ. K. Studying Development a. Different genetic background but similar environment and  vice versa b. Can’t be generalized to humans Human Studies A. Behavior Genetics 12 a. Adoption Studies i. Studies identical twins separated by birth  b. Twin Studies i. Studying dizygotic and monozygotic twins c. Family Studies B. Personality a. Two of the “Big 5” linked to genetic factors (Starred) i. Neuroticism * ii. Extraversion * iii. Conscientiousness iv. Openness v. Agreeableness C. Environmental Influences D. Fundamental Principle a. Both genetics and environment influence the development  of personality 13


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