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Developmental Psych 256- Week 6 Notes

by: Bobbi Ellias

Developmental Psych 256- Week 6 Notes PSY 256-70

Bobbi Ellias


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About this Document

Notes for class lectures Week 6
Developmental Psychology 256
Dr. Linda Lee
Class Notes
Week 6; Developmental Psych 256
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bobbi Ellias on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 256-70 at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Linda Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology 256 in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Forms of Aggression: 1. instrumental aggression: used to obtain or retain toy/object 2. reactive aggression: angry retaliation for intentional or accidental act 3. relational aggression: inflicting psychological pain (gossip) 4. bullying: Unprovoked, repeated attack; unequal status (like size); involved repeated and systematic efforts to inflict harm A.Characteristics of Bullies: 1. High self esteem 2. narcissistic 3. negative view of peer 4. lack of empathy 5. socially competent (ability to choose “right” victim) 6. ability to manipulate other peers into supporting them 7. use prosocial means to achieve status 8. select exact target who will be easy to attack B. Ways to Reduce Bullying: 1. Mobilize bystanders 1. Witnessing bullying increases anxiety in bystanders 2. Many encourage and maintain bullying 2. having “high status children as friends” could be a good solution to prevent bullying Adolescent Development: Adolescence: rite of passage A. Western Cultures: adolescence= long period 1. early adolescence (10-13 years) 2. Middle adolescence (14-17 years) 3. Emerging Adulthood (18-25 years) B. Early notions of Adolescence in Western Societies: 1. “a time of rebellion” -Stanley Hall 2. This is not true. Only few experience severe struggles, most get along well with parents and like time alone as well as time with friends C. 3 Fundamental changes during Adolescence 1. Biological: a. sex hormones: -boys: testosterone increases, estradiol steady -girls: estradiol increases; testosterone steady b. hypothalamus—> GNRH—> FH (primary: ovaries and testes) and LH (secondary: height, hair, muscles, body fat) c. 8 or 9 years: LH and FH release during sleep only 9 or 10: significant increase 15 or 16: hormones stabilize hormones lead to physical changes (height) **hormones are not the reason for “moodiness” in teens Brain During Adolescence: I Changes in structure: A. overproduction: (10-12 years). Thickening of synaptic connections, especially in frontal lobe B. Synaptic pruning: (12-20 years) cut out unused synapses. strengthen active synapses and rid with the unused ones. **growth in IQ during adolescence C. Frontal-lobe: planning, modulate mood, making decisions D. Cerebellum: continues to grow through mid 20s E. Changes in Function: 1. Adolescence process emotional info using amygdala (gut) rather than frontal lobe like adults. 2. “Risk taking” in adolescents increase when around peers F. Sleep patterns: 1. Sleep patterns shift because of delay in sleep-induce hormone (melatonin) II. Cognitive Development in Adolescence: A. Formal Operations: abstract thinking B. Piaget= Cognitive C. Leads to: increase self consciousness; adolescent egocentrism 1. imaginary audience: a. ex: girl in hallway hears 2 boys whisper, girl thinks it must be about her. 2. personal fable a. you think you are unique and no one can relate b. Ex: teen gets bad grade, parent tries to calm them down, but teen gets mad, thinking “no one understands” 3. invincibility fable: a. nothing bad will happen to me idea b. ex: Teen Mom Adolescent Identity Definition: the search for self understanding I. Self in Adolescents A. capacity for abstract thoughts means an adolescent can distinguish between: 1. actual self “who am I” 2. possible selves “Who I might become” 3. feared self “Who I dread becoming” B. Identity: 1. A person’s sense of placement in the world 2. Who am I? Who do I want to become? C. Identity vs Identity diffusion: stag of development at adolescence 1. Marcio’s Identity Typology (4 Identity Statuses) a. achieved: i. explored and highly committed ii. ex: you know what job options they're are in field of math and you choose to major in math b. moratorium: i. start to explore, but not commitment ii. Indian girl starts to explore Indian clubs and culture clubs at school c. Foreclosed: i. not explored, but told to accept ii. Indian girl doesn’t know anything about culture but is in Indian classes because parents told her to d. diffuse: i. hasn't really explored concept of identity ii. African girl does not think about being African or celebrate any African heritage D. Ethnic identity: one’s sense of belonging to an ethnic group and part of one’s thinking/feeling/ behavior that is due to ethnic membership Intimacy and Sexuality in Adolescence: I. Erikson’s 6th stage of Development: Developing Intimacy A. Adolescents need to develop meaningful relationships 1. Friendships 2. Romantic Relationships (new at this age) B. In adolescence: 1. intimacy decreases with parent (talking, touching) a. this is IMPORTANT! b. distancing hypothesis: adaptive so reproduction can happen C. Intimate relationship: behavioral interdependence, need fulfillment, emotional attachment, love 1. components of love a. intimacy b. passion (physiological arousal) c. decision and commitment II. Brown’s Model of Adolescent Love: A. 4 phases: 1. Initiation phase: tentative explorations, short-lived, filled with anxiety, fear, excitement 2. status phase: gain confidence in relationship skills BUT acutely aware of friends/peers reactions 3. affection phase: meaningful attachments, deeper feelings, Begin to engage in more extensive sexual activity 4. bonding phase: relationship enduring/serious-possibility of lifelong commitment III. Dating/Development of Intimacy A. Dating 1. Being “dating” at 13-14 (group hangout) 2. age norms determine when dating starts, not physical development B. Sequence of Sexual milestones 1. kiss briefly 2. kiss longer 3. petting 4. heavy petting 5. hand vagina 6. oral sex 7. sex C. Sex 1. Is it bad for adolescents to have sex? a. Gender: girls- if before 16, related to negative outcomes (subject to more social sanctions- “slut” b. Sexual scripts: cognitive frameworks for understanding how a sexual experience is supposed to proceed and what it means i. Girls: set limits, sex consequences, risk of pregnancy, love ii. Boys: expected to make the move, less intimacy, more recreation c. ambivalent: most adolescence (particularly girls) show low “wantedness” i. high ambivalence leads to low contraception use ii. culture: cross cultural studies show fewer to no negative outcomes


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