European Civ Class Notes, #4
European Civ Class Notes, #4 HIST 1120 - European Civ in World Context
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Xanthos on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1120 - European Civ in World Context at George Washington University taught by Burns in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see European Civ in World Context in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
the industrial revolution not a term used at the time at the end of the 19th century meant to be a parallel to the french revolution debate over when it begins the revolution is definitions power 0 not political or social power 0 power as in the ability to reach out to things in the universe and move them around 0 humans have relied on naturally occurring sources of power like human or animal muscle or wind that turned windmills or moved sailing ships from beginning of time 0 human beings use more and become more dependent on arti cially generated power in the industrial revolution 0 most important is steam power burn coal or wood or charcoal to heat water and create steam to generate power steam now succeeded by petrol nuclear power economic growth 0 take off into selfsustaining growth 0 most economies grow in the long term but grow intermittently 0 during a revolution there typically is a much smoother faster uptick in growth 0 British economy did not grow that much faster as a result of the revolution technological growth 0 rate of technological innovation speeds up during revolution 0 before the revolution extremely slow 0 example printing press gets improved upon distribution of labor 0 most people were engaged in primary food production 0 otherwise people were engaged in other primary production 0 now that is the minority 0 early 19th century Britain majority of population in cities 0 people are factory workers clerks artisans why England wealth 0 natural resources 0 England has a lot of coal helped steam production 0 coal is the fuel of the rst revolution 0 aggregate wealth 0 rich society by premodem standards 0 enough capital for people to invest it in industrial enterprises 0 due to agricultural reorganization farmers lost jobs and joined the work force technological culture 0 disputed some people say the revolution was not that technologically innovative revolution seen as a series of great inventors and their great inventions 0 machines were devised built and maintained global empire 0 England had built the world s largest global empire 0 Britain recovers quickly from the american revolution 0 two main things empire provides source of supply mechanized spinning and weaving 0 Britain did not produce any cotton not the right climate 0 textile produced instead was wool cotton grew in their colonies and the American south knew Britain was so dependent on their cotton they thought they would support them in civil war 0 to be successful Britain needed not only a supply but a reliable supply 0 France could not have a reliable supply because France is at war with Britain Britain rules the seas France can t get supplies as easily Britain can rely on steady stream of imports and France cannot Britain exported some goods to Europe reason for continental system re Napoleon was to bring Britain to knees and free up the sea for the French but it fails 0 Europe is not an adequate export market for amount Britain was producing and they wanted markets they could protect close off to foreign competition 0 colonial markets were perfect as they could only buy and sell with Britain logic our colony will buy from us and only us the railway age railroads invented in 1825 emerge in the north of England first railway anywhere in the world doesn t go to London but runs between Liverpool and Manchester uses coal and hauls things back and forth dramatic impact on culture factory system doesn t affect you if you aren t working in it but the railway affects everybody the steam ship around the same time opens up isolated areas and allows for tourism Scottish islands swiss alps by 1850 tourism was so embraced that english people were writing about going to the swiss alps and were complaining about how many english people were there the revolution spreads time was local and time was in theory continuous and gauged by the sun railroads worry about it because of timetables time zones start in the united states because it was a big country going east to west and railroads traversed the country other countries noticed what England was doing and 1851 is the height of the revolution worlds fair held in London built crystal palace out of industrial steel which was a product of the revolution and allowed Britain to show off modern thing crystal palace was bombed to ruins in world war 2 class structure in the 19th century the problem marxist interpretations karl marx believed that class structure was becoming simpler because of the industrial revolution industrial revolution divides into proletariats which are industrial workers and Bourgeoisie which owns factories exploited and exploited becomes more complex the persistence of the old regime did not mean the end of the european social order persists into the first world war even in the most commercial of societies it s not just about money to be part of the elite to be a gentleman lady money alone will not work in contrast the US is all about money people use money to attain social status that money won t give you example take profits from factory buy country estate send son to university have him enter parliament have him marry a daughter of a count the gentleman still occupies many citadels of power land owner don t have power because you have land have land because you are powerful land is a sign of status officers lean heavily toward the aristocracy Bourgeoisie have hard time cracking that o in Germany old fashioned aristocrats don t want anyone Bourgeoisie for their officers navy becomes middle class in Germany diplomacy is a eld for gentleman the peasants serf is an unfree peasant bound to the land if the land owner sells land sells peasants not slavery not freedom when serfdom was abolished in Russia landowner still owned land could dictate terms to present community does not improve condition of Russian peasant in many areas peasants vote the way their land owners tell them secret ballot big deal didn t vote for who they were told to evicted cities during the industrial revolution cities grow not where the churches are urban population becomes secularized peasantry in rural communities often religiously conservative to be christian in 19th century is to be politically conservative peasants are suspicious of free trade worried producing for the market their country will get ooded and their sector will collapse therefore peasant and land owner will vote for agricultural protection new social classes the bourgeoisie people who own means of production wealth was based on manufacturing new money money not inherited but made himself idea of a selfmade man respected industrial Bourgeoisie not the most powerful section of the Bourgeoisie financial Bourgeoisie the f1nancialbougies owned banks financial firms wealth driven by the control of money rothschild family jewish family that had established branches in different countries becomes rich Bourgeoisie is in uential England alters its economy and becomes a capitalist economy gentlemen are not running the show anymore economy not run for the benefit of the land owner France the Bourgeoisie becomes dominant politically the proletariat rising in the late 19th century life getting better long shifts terrible working conditions knife grinders sheffield steel starts to improve work gets more regulated proper water and sewage system educational system gets better and healthcare gets better their work is producing wealth for the Bourgeoisie proletariat mainly socialist huge debate about civil marriage led the the proletariat becomes secular early industrial revolution does t have leisure activities 19th century also sees rise in temperance movements the petty bourgeoisie marX thought they were going to disappear thought they would descend into the proletariat whole point of petty Bourgeoisie is not being proletariat people who are in terms of lifestyle are inbetween the proletariat and the Bourgeoisie owners of small businesses example a shoe shop and the person works there along with his workers rather than manager under economic pressure in the 19th century other main sector of petty Bourgeoisie clerks people writing things down
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