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PSYC 1000 - Week 5 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 5 Notes Psyc 1000-04

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > Psyc 1000-04 > PSYC 1000 Week 5 Notes
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About this Document

Lecture Notes Ch 3
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
Rollins, psych, Psychology, consciousness




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
PSYC Notes Week 5 February 10­12 CHAPTER 3: Consciousness Sleep ­ Sleep: natural periodic suspension of consciousness ­ Decreased movement and decreased response to environment ­ Circadian rhythm: cycle of behavior and physiology ­ Repeats about once/day ­ Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of hypothalamus controls rhythm ­ Info from optic nerve about light levels ­ Individual variations of alertness throughout the day ­ Ex. morning people vs. night people ­ Depends on genetics, age ­ Circadian low points: 1­4 AM and 1­4 PM ­ People are at their sleepiest ­ Drop in performance, increase in accidents ­ Stages of sleep ­ Electroencephalogram (EEG): measures electrical activity in brain ­ Measures synchronous activity of neurons ­ "Brain waves": wavelike bursts of activity; neurons fire all at  once and then stop, and then repeat ­ Stages each have unique wave characteristics ­ NREM 1 ­ Light sleep, easily awakened ­ Hallucinations possible ­ Only go into NREM 1 when initially falling asleep ­ NREM 2 ­ Deeper than NREM 1 ­ Most of time asleep is in NREM 2 ­ NREM 3 ("slow­wave") ­ Deepest stage of sleep ­ Physiological slowing down (heart rate, blood pressure) ­ Sleep walking/talking/wetting bed  ­ Refers to what used to be known as stage 3 and 4 ­ REM ­ Rapid Eye Movement ­ Dreaming ­ "Paradoxical sleep" ­ Brain activity ­ Internal physiologic activity ­ Heart rate etc. similar to awake state ­ Muscle paralysis ­ To prevent acting out dreams ­ Animals and REM ­ Mammals exhibit REM ­ Evidence suggests animals dream during REM ­ Progression through stages ­ From 1 ­­> 2 ­­> 3 ­ Amplitude increases ­ Frequency decreases ­ Wavelength lengthens ­ Complete sleep cycle: NREM 1 ­­> NREM 2 ­­> NREM 3  ­­> NREM 2 ­­> REM ­ Cycle takes approximately 90 minutes ­ A night's sleep ­ Increased time in REM and NREM 2 the longer you sleep ­ Decreased time in NREM 3 the longer you sleep ­ Variations in amount of sleep needed ­ Functions of sleep ­ No solid reason as to why we sleep ­ Improves memory, concentration, immune function ­ Major impact on mood during the day ­ Theories about why we sleep ­ Restorative: restock, repair, and reorganize ­ Increased protein synthesis during sleep ­ Quicker reactions, greater endurance after sleep ­ Learning and memory ­ Better problem solving after sleep ­ Sleep deprivation ­ Fatigue, irritability, inattention, learning, hallucinations ­ Disrupts immune system, hunger and body fat hormones (weight gain) ­ More likely to get sick, wounds heal slower ­ Micro sleeps: sleep that last for a few seconds at a time ­ Eyes may be open but brain is asleep ­ People are not necessarily aware of micro sleeps ­ Functioning impaired ­ Dreams ­ Perceptual images during REM sleep ­ Dream content reflects waking thoughts, concerns, and experiences ­ Compensatory effects: make up for what we miss during the day ­ Functions of dreaming ­ Brains are still monitoring sensory information during sleep ­ REM rebound: tendency to spend longer time in REM sleep than  usual if we have been deprived of it ­ Some drugs suppress REM sleep ­ Learning, memory, and emotional processing ­ Increase in REM after traumatic circumstances ­ Causes of dreaming ­ Activation­synthesis hypothesis ­ Bursts of activity in brain stem ­ Dreams are synthesized from activation of random  memories and concepts; brain tries to make sense of randomness ­ Sleep Disorders ­ Parasomnia: undesirable behaviors or experiences related to sleep ­ Sleep­talking ­ Most often in NREM 3 ­ More common in children, individuals who are sleep  deprived, individuals who have a fever ­ Usually speech has little to do with reality ­ Sleepwalking ­ Occurs in NREM 3 ­ Most often simple, repetitive movements ­ More common in children, individuals who are sleep  deprived, individuals who have a fever ­ Genetic influence ­ Nightmares: scary dreams ­ Occur during REM ­ Night terrors: not associated with dreaming ­ Sympathetic nervous system activation: screaming,  sweating, rapid breathing, and movement ­ Occur during NREM 3 ­ More common in children, individuals who are sleep  deprived, individuals who have a fever ­ REM behavior disorder: individual loses muscle paralysis  associated with REM ­ Act out their dreams ­ More common in men over 50 ­ Associated with development of Parkinson's disease  ­ Insomnia: most common sleep disorder ­ Problems falling and/or staying asleep ­ Can be temporary, induced by stress ­ Comorbidity with depression ­ Narcolepsy: periodic overwhelming sleepiness ­ Symptoms: ­ Sleepiness and sleep attacks (spontaneously fall asleep  and enter into REM) ­ Cataplexy: loss of muscle tone (partial or full relaxation) ­ Triggered by strong emotions ­ Frequent/common hypnogogic (falling asleep) and  hypnopompic (awakening) hallucinations, paralysis ­ Appears between the ages 15­25 ­ Autoimmune disorder ­ Body attacks neurons that release orexin/hypocretin  (neurotransmitters involved in sleep/wake cycle) Psychoactive drugs: influence psychological processes by altering synaptic activity in the brain ­ Drugs affect neurotransmitters ­ Agonists: typically enhances/mimics the neurotransmitter ­ Antagonist: typically inhibits/blocks the neurotransmitter ­ Blocks the neurotransmitter from binding to its receptor ­ Addiction: repetitive and compulsive use of a drug despite negative  consequences ­ Physical and psychological components ­ Hijacked brain: obtaining drug becomes first priority; loss of control ­ Biological predisposition to addiction ­ Fewer dopamine receptors ­­> more prone to addiction ­ Reward­deficiency syndrome: deficiency of dopamine  leads to seeking things out for more pleasure (drugs, gambling, sex) ­ Psychosocial factors ­ Stress, failure ***CHECK PPT ­ Tolerance: need increased amounts of a drug to get the same effect as you did  when you first started it ­ Can occur for some effects of a drug but not all ­ Body compensates over time for the effects of the drug ­ Withdrawal syndrome: undesirable effects of discontinued drug use ­ Opposite the drug's initial effects ­ Mechanism behind withdrawal and tolerance ­ Body/brain initiates processes to counteract effects of drug to maintain  homeostasis ­ Drug interaction ­ Two drugs together can amplify each other's effects Depressants: drugs that depress activity in the nervous system ­ Relaxation, drowsiness, decreased anxiety ­ Alcohol ­ Alters many different neurotransmitters ­ Widespread effects on brain and behavior ­ Frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex): thinking, judgment ­ Hippocampus: memory ­ Cerebellum: balance and coordination ­ Brain stem: reticular formation, medulla: consciousness, heart  rate and breathing ­ Deathly withdrawal syndrome ­ Only within long­term alcoholics ­ Benzodiazepines ­ Prescription drugs: Valium, Xanax, Librium, etc. ­ Anxiolytics, tranquilizers ­ Drowsiness and relaxation ­ Agonist of GABA (more inhibition/slowing) ­ Addiction, deadly withdrawal syndrome


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