PSYC 1000 - Week 5 Notes
PSYC 1000 - Week 5 Notes Psyc 1000-04
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
PSYC Notes Week 5 February 1012 CHAPTER 3: Consciousness Sleep Sleep: natural periodic suspension of consciousness Decreased movement and decreased response to environment Circadian rhythm: cycle of behavior and physiology Repeats about once/day Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of hypothalamus controls rhythm Info from optic nerve about light levels Individual variations of alertness throughout the day Ex. morning people vs. night people Depends on genetics, age Circadian low points: 14 AM and 14 PM People are at their sleepiest Drop in performance, increase in accidents Stages of sleep Electroencephalogram (EEG): measures electrical activity in brain Measures synchronous activity of neurons "Brain waves": wavelike bursts of activity; neurons fire all at once and then stop, and then repeat Stages each have unique wave characteristics NREM 1 Light sleep, easily awakened Hallucinations possible Only go into NREM 1 when initially falling asleep NREM 2 Deeper than NREM 1 Most of time asleep is in NREM 2 NREM 3 ("slowwave") Deepest stage of sleep Physiological slowing down (heart rate, blood pressure) Sleep walking/talking/wetting bed Refers to what used to be known as stage 3 and 4 REM Rapid Eye Movement Dreaming "Paradoxical sleep" Brain activity Internal physiologic activity Heart rate etc. similar to awake state Muscle paralysis To prevent acting out dreams Animals and REM Mammals exhibit REM Evidence suggests animals dream during REM Progression through stages From 1 > 2 > 3 Amplitude increases Frequency decreases Wavelength lengthens Complete sleep cycle: NREM 1 > NREM 2 > NREM 3 > NREM 2 > REM Cycle takes approximately 90 minutes A night's sleep Increased time in REM and NREM 2 the longer you sleep Decreased time in NREM 3 the longer you sleep Variations in amount of sleep needed Functions of sleep No solid reason as to why we sleep Improves memory, concentration, immune function Major impact on mood during the day Theories about why we sleep Restorative: restock, repair, and reorganize Increased protein synthesis during sleep Quicker reactions, greater endurance after sleep Learning and memory Better problem solving after sleep Sleep deprivation Fatigue, irritability, inattention, learning, hallucinations Disrupts immune system, hunger and body fat hormones (weight gain) More likely to get sick, wounds heal slower Micro sleeps: sleep that last for a few seconds at a time Eyes may be open but brain is asleep People are not necessarily aware of micro sleeps Functioning impaired Dreams Perceptual images during REM sleep Dream content reflects waking thoughts, concerns, and experiences Compensatory effects: make up for what we miss during the day Functions of dreaming Brains are still monitoring sensory information during sleep REM rebound: tendency to spend longer time in REM sleep than usual if we have been deprived of it Some drugs suppress REM sleep Learning, memory, and emotional processing Increase in REM after traumatic circumstances Causes of dreaming Activationsynthesis hypothesis Bursts of activity in brain stem Dreams are synthesized from activation of random memories and concepts; brain tries to make sense of randomness Sleep Disorders Parasomnia: undesirable behaviors or experiences related to sleep Sleeptalking Most often in NREM 3 More common in children, individuals who are sleep deprived, individuals who have a fever Usually speech has little to do with reality Sleepwalking Occurs in NREM 3 Most often simple, repetitive movements More common in children, individuals who are sleep deprived, individuals who have a fever Genetic influence Nightmares: scary dreams Occur during REM Night terrors: not associated with dreaming Sympathetic nervous system activation: screaming, sweating, rapid breathing, and movement Occur during NREM 3 More common in children, individuals who are sleep deprived, individuals who have a fever REM behavior disorder: individual loses muscle paralysis associated with REM Act out their dreams More common in men over 50 Associated with development of Parkinson's disease Insomnia: most common sleep disorder Problems falling and/or staying asleep Can be temporary, induced by stress Comorbidity with depression Narcolepsy: periodic overwhelming sleepiness Symptoms: Sleepiness and sleep attacks (spontaneously fall asleep and enter into REM) Cataplexy: loss of muscle tone (partial or full relaxation) Triggered by strong emotions Frequent/common hypnogogic (falling asleep) and hypnopompic (awakening) hallucinations, paralysis Appears between the ages 1525 Autoimmune disorder Body attacks neurons that release orexin/hypocretin (neurotransmitters involved in sleep/wake cycle) Psychoactive drugs: influence psychological processes by altering synaptic activity in the brain Drugs affect neurotransmitters Agonists: typically enhances/mimics the neurotransmitter Antagonist: typically inhibits/blocks the neurotransmitter Blocks the neurotransmitter from binding to its receptor Addiction: repetitive and compulsive use of a drug despite negative consequences Physical and psychological components Hijacked brain: obtaining drug becomes first priority; loss of control Biological predisposition to addiction Fewer dopamine receptors > more prone to addiction Rewarddeficiency syndrome: deficiency of dopamine leads to seeking things out for more pleasure (drugs, gambling, sex) Psychosocial factors Stress, failure ***CHECK PPT Tolerance: need increased amounts of a drug to get the same effect as you did when you first started it Can occur for some effects of a drug but not all Body compensates over time for the effects of the drug Withdrawal syndrome: undesirable effects of discontinued drug use Opposite the drug's initial effects Mechanism behind withdrawal and tolerance Body/brain initiates processes to counteract effects of drug to maintain homeostasis Drug interaction Two drugs together can amplify each other's effects Depressants: drugs that depress activity in the nervous system Relaxation, drowsiness, decreased anxiety Alcohol Alters many different neurotransmitters Widespread effects on brain and behavior Frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex): thinking, judgment Hippocampus: memory Cerebellum: balance and coordination Brain stem: reticular formation, medulla: consciousness, heart rate and breathing Deathly withdrawal syndrome Only within longterm alcoholics Benzodiazepines Prescription drugs: Valium, Xanax, Librium, etc. Anxiolytics, tranquilizers Drowsiness and relaxation Agonist of GABA (more inhibition/slowing) Addiction, deadly withdrawal syndrome
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