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by: Geoff Bell

WEEK 3 NOTES Anth 10700

Geoff Bell
GPA 3.0

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Middle Paleolithic, Upper Paleolithic, and Peopling of the New World covered this week.
World Archaeology
MIchael Malpass
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Geoff Bell on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 10700 at Ithaca College taught by MIchael Malpass in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ithaca College.

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Date Created: 02/12/16
World Archaeology Week 3 Middle Paleolithic (20,000­40,000 BP) ­After 200,000 yrs BP, the fossil record becomes clearer in Europe ­Neanderthals appear by 125,000 yrs ago Neanderthals ­What do you think they looked like and acted like? ­Body shape short and more robust than modern humans ­Head shape and size: Long and low, brain size average slightly larger than  modern ­Similar, yet different from us ­But how different? ­DNA ­What do we know from mDNA studies about our relationship? ­Are they direct ancestor of humans, or an extinct side group? ­1­4% of the modern human genome is from the Neanderthals ­Separate species cannot interbreed, and they interbred with us, so they are  a sub species. ­Culture ­Mousterian Culture ­Stone Tools ­Hand axes still used but they are much smaller and fewer ­flake tools are more prevalent: 50+ kinds now seen ­Each tool had different uses for different activities: partly from expanded  brain size and better understanding of the environment ­What other cultural behaviors existed? ­Hunting behaviors ­Burials ­Shanidar Cave ­Techie Tash ­Ritual and religion ­ Food with burials ­Red ochre sprinkled on bodies ­Other Behaviors ­Compassion (for loved ones (flowers after death)) ­Violence (Some found with broken ribs and signs of stab wounds) ­Cannibalism? (Bite marks on human bones) ­Are Neanderthals the savages people think they are? ­No: Survival calls for it, people had already died and they were preventing  starvation, especially in the cold weather, when it is hard to hunt ­What does this suggest about Neanderthals as people? ­Did they speak or have a language? What allows us to speak? ­Vocal apparatus: Vocal cords for humans ­Larynx ­Pharynx ­Brain ­Also nerves, tongues, etc. ­Yes, they most likely did speak. ­Displacement ­Being able to talk about the past, present, or future ­Adaptive Displacement ­They could talk about what worked and what didn’t, and be able to  plan for the future ­Could not, however speak like us. Although it is still not guaranteed  that they even speak at all ­Other kinds of humans ­ not Neanderthals ­Whether different species is uncertain ­Possibility of the continued existence of erectus in Indonesia ­Other kinds of tool assemblages ­ not Mousterian ­Even as Neanderthals are emerging as a distinct form in Europe, between 200,000­125,000 years BP, a new species is evolving in Africa ­Homo sapiens sapiens, anatomically modern humans Upper Paleolithic (40,000­10,000 BP) ­ Last and shortest part of the Paleolithic.  Hunting and Gathering during the height of the Pleistocene  ­Fascinating Period: ­Spread of modern humans and disappearance of Neanderthals   ­Replacement of flake tool assemblages by blade tool ones ­Increase in use of bone, wood, antler and ivory  ­New hunting technologies ­Emergence of Art ­Expansion of human into Australia and New World during this time as well ­Only replacement of archaic humans and movement to other continents occurred elsewhere at this time, the rest of traits restricted to Europe ­Replacement of Neanderthals ­Anatomically modern humans appear in SE Europe beginning around 40,000  years BP ­Replacement of Neanderthals complete by around 30,000 BP—a remarkably  short time! ­How did this happen? ­Blade tools Appear ­What is a blade? A special type of flake that is at least twice as long as it is  wide with parallel sides. New, more skilled manufacturing technique used to  make them. ­Advantages? ­More tool edge ­Less waste during manufacturing ­More adaptability in final tool shape ­Upper Paleolithic tools assemblages now have over 100 different kinds of tools ­Many now made of bone, wood, antlers and ivory, using stone tools to make  them ­Hmmm­this is many more than modern hunters and gatherers use. Why? ­Environment was such that that identified many different tools for many  different activities ­Harpoons especially common in western Europe. Significance? ­Both Neanderthals and modern humans used blade tools—who invented them  is uncertain. ­New Hunting Technologies ­Atlatl appears (spear thrower) ­Bow and Arrow at end of period ­Animal drives in western Europe, mammoth hunting in Ukraine ­Dog domesticated and used for hunting ­New Women of the Ice Age ­What was the traditional view of women's roles during Upper Paleolithic ­How does the article change those views? ­About hunting? Evidence found that women were making nets but we are  unsure what they were used for. Possibly net fishing, or carrying bags. ­Evidence suggests women could have played a more important role in the food  ­About gathering? ­Eating a wide variety of plants that were available ­About Venus figurines? ­Evidence? ­Summary ­By 30,000 BP, nearly all neanderthals had been replaced by modern  humans over the latter’s previous range ­Skeletal evidence and genetic studies indicate some interbreeding, but likely Neanderthals outcompeted for resources ­Art and Decoration ­The art that appears in western Europe during this time is a truly unique aspect of the Upper Paleolithic ­Art is a trait of modern humans ­Two kinds of art ­Mural (cave) Art ­Lascaux Cave, France ­Altamira Cave, Spain ­Not caves for living either, no evidence found of objects to indicate a living space ­Human figures were very rare, animals could be drawn to incredible scale  and detail, but human figures were usually stick figures or worse. ­Possible Explanations:  ­Some is sympathetic magic ­Some is for fertility ­Some marks ownership (hands) ­Caves reflect foci of group membership ­Portable Art ­carved bone, antler, ivory, both tools and non­tools ­Summary of Period ­How can we account for all this novelty in the European Upper Paleolithic? ­Why between 40,000­10,000? ­Why only in Europe? ­Peopling of the New World ­Very controversial when people actually arrived ­Where did the original inhabitants come from? Where could the have come  from? ­How do we know? ­What is the evidence? ­Evidence for peopling from NE Siberia: ­Physical similarities between Native Americans and East Asians ­Tooth (specifically incisor) morphology ­mtDNA studies ­Blood Groups ­So how did they get to the New World? ­They walked across the Bering Strait ­When was Beringia open? ­60,000­13,000 BP That got people to Alaska, but how did they get to  continental US? ­Either along the coast in boats, or the Ice­Free Corridor, which was open  only around 13,000­14,000 years ago ­Earliest well­dated culture south of Alaska is Clovis, a.k.a. the Paleoindians ­Paleoindians: ­Found from SW to NE US ­highly distinctive tool kit ­11,050­10,800 BP most recent suggested dates ­But were they the first?  ­The answer clearly seems to be no ­Evidence? ­Monte verde, Chile (14,000 BP) ­Paisley Cave, OR (14,300 BP) ­Human coprolites ­mtDNA links to modern Native Americans ­Clovis now appears as only one of several human adaptations to resources  available in North America, and it is an indigenous development ­But what about Kennewick Man? ­8500 BP ­Euro­American features ­Other early skeletons also distinct from present Native American ones ­Significance? ­Controversial for another reason—NAGPRA (Native American Graves  Protection and Repatriation Act) ­Native Americans want to rebury what they consider is an ancestor ­Some archeologists want to study it further, and claim ancestry cannot be  determined ­Currently, archaeologists have legal ruling, but the might change ­Recent DNA studies by scientists link him to modern groups that live in the region—ironic?


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