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A&P Week 3

by: Gabby Notetaker

A&P Week 3 1334

Gabby Notetaker

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Note: This professor refers to information from the textbook: Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology by Elaine Marieb
Anatomy and Physiology 1
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabby Notetaker on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1334 at NYU School of Medicine taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Science at NYU School of Medicine.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Digestive System  Parts:  Mouth (Oral Cavity)  Tongue  Esophagus  Liver (biggest organ in body)  Gallbladder  Small Intestine  Duodenum (first part)  Jejunum (middle portion)  Neum (last portion)  Pharynx  Stomach  Pancreas (pancreatic juice flows into duodenum through pancreatic duct)  Spleen  Large Intestine  Cecum  Sigmoid Colon  Rectum  Appendix  Anal Cavity  Oral Cavity  Upper Lip  Gingivae (gums)  Hard Palate  Soft Palate Uvula  Palatine Tonsil  Oropharynx  Tongue  Accessory Organs  Liver  Pancreas  Gallbladder Digestive System Analysis  Two ways food travels through the system in your body  Peristalsis: alternating waves of contraction and relaxation that squeezes food along GI tract gastrointestinal tract (works in one direction, pushed down tract and into the stomach)  Segmentation: moving materials back and forth to aid with mixing (only starts in intestinal tract)  Ingestion: placing food into the mouth  Propulsion: moving foods from one region of the digestive system to another Mouth Physiology  4 Mouth Functions  Mechanical Breakdown  Chemical Breakdown (involves enzymes)  Swallowing, movement of food to the back of throat  Activation of taste buds  Carbohydrates  Breaks down into glucose (sugars)  Proteins  Breaks down into amino acids  Fats  Breaks down into fatty acids *All broken down in order to absorb them*  Serous or Serosa (some sort of fluid lubrication)  Mucosa or Mucous  Stomach  Storage  Chemical/ mechanical digestion  Protein digestion (pepsin: enzyme breaks down proteins)  Duodenum  Fat digestion begins  Small Intestine  Large amount of villi, increases surface areas  Begins and completes digestion of nucleic acids  Completes digestion of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids  Segmentation (movement) allows digestive enzymes and bring food into contact with mucosa for absorption  Intestinal Tract  Several blood vessels  Omentum 2  Protects intestines, cushions, protects, insulates Major Hormones  All control digestion  Gastrin (stomach mucosa): stimulates secretion of gastric juice  Secretin (intestinal mucosa): stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice  Cholecystokinin (CKK) (intestinal mucosa): inhibits gastric emptying, causes ejection of bile from the gallbladder Liver in Digestion  Hepatocytes  Simple carbohydrates combined to form glycogen  Lipids created from glucose and amino acids  Distributes amino acids to blood  Breaks down excessive amino acids; worn-out proteins become glucose Enzymes:  Amylase  Breaks down starches into sugars  Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase  Break proteins down into amino acids  Pancreatic lipase  Breaks triglycerides into fatty acids 3


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