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Chapter 5 Notes - Poli Sci

by: Sierra Crumbaugh

Chapter 5 Notes - Poli Sci POLI 201 001

Sierra Crumbaugh

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These notes cover the lecture slides and any additional information covered by the professor for Chapter 5 of American National Government.
American National Government
Class Notes
National Government, Chapter 5, political science, history
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Crumbaugh on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 201 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Darmofal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Chapter  5 Tuesday,  February  9,  2010:51  AM Civil  Liberties  and  Civil   Rights  are  Not  the  Same Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 10:47  AM → Civil  Rights  are  the  legal  or  moral  claims   that  citizens  are  entitled  to  make  on  the   government → The  equal  protection  clause  of  the  14th   Amendment  has  been  the  basis  for  the   civil  rights  of  African  Americans,   women  and  other  groups.   Civil  Rights  and   Collective  Action Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → Remember  that  the  Collective  Action   Principle  states  that  collective  action   is  difficult  and  the  difficulty  mounts   as  the  number  of  individuals  involved   increases → Civil  rights  shapes  collective  action  by   regulating  who  can  participate  in  the   political  process  and  how  they  can   participate The  Equal  Protection   Clause Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → The  14th  Amendment  reads:  "No   The  Equal  Protection   Clause Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → The  14th  Amendment  reads:  "No   state  shall  make  or  enforce  any  law   which  shall…  deny  to  any  person   within  its  jurisdiction  that  equal   protection  of  the  laws." → Note  that  the  language  of  the  14th   Amendment  requires  equal   protection  for  a  "person"  rather   than  a  "citizen" Civil  Rights-­‐   Who,   What,  and  How   Much? Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 10:55  AM → Civil  rights  can  be  thought  of  in   terms  of  answering  these  three   questions: ○ Who  has  a  right  and  who   does  not? ○ A  right  to  what? ○ How  much  can  they   exercise  that  right? → The  answers  to  all  of  these   questions  have  changed  over   time  -­‐the  History  Principle  at   work The  Right  to  Vote Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → The  right  to  vote  was  not  included  in   the  Constitution → Initially,  states  restricted  voting  based   on:   ○ Religion Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → The  right  to  vote  was  not  included  in   the  Constitution → Initially,  states  restricted  voting  based   on:   ○ Religion ○ Property ○ Gender ○ Race → Voting  rights  have  expanded  over  time The  Struggle  for  Civil   Rights Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → Just  as  the  Court  did  not  initially  use   the  14th  Amendment  to  impose  the  Bill   of  Rights  on  the  states,  the  Court  was   slow  to  use  the  equal  protection  clause   to  enforce  civil  rights → The  1875  Civil  Rights  Act  was  struck   down  on  the  grounds  that  it  applied  to   private  businesses,  while  the  14th   Amendment  refers  to  state  action Plessy  v.  Ferguson:   "Separate  but  Equal" Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → In  1896,  the  Court  went  further  by   upholding  a  Louisiana  statute  that   required  segregation  of  the  races  on   trolleys  and  other  public  carriers   and,  by  implication,  in  all  public   facilities,  including  schools.   → Homer  Plessy,  a  man  defines  as   "one-­‐eighth  black,"  had  violated  a   law  that  imposed  a  fine  for  any  black   passenger  sitting  in  a  car  reserved   for  whites → In  its  ruling,  the  Court  said  the  14th   Amendment  "could  not  have   "one-­‐eighth  black,"  had  violated  a   law  that  imposed  a  fine  for  any  black   passenger  sitting  in  a  car  reserved   for  whites → In  its  ruling,  the  Court  said  the  14th   Amendment  "could  not  have   intended  to  abolish  distinctions   based  on  color,  or  to  enforce…  a   commingling  of  the  two  races  upon   terms  unsatisfactory  to  either." → This  was  the  origin  of  the  "separate   but  equal"  rule,  the  doctrine  that   held  that  accommodations  could  be   segregated  by  race  but  still  equal Fighting  Racial   Discrimination Tuesday,  February  9,  2016 → Starting  in  the  late  1930s,  the   Court  became  more  active  in   equal  protection ○ The  Court  required   admission  to  a  Missouri   law  school  rather  than   paying  out-­‐of-­‐state  tuition   for  African  Americans   (1938).   ○ The  Court  rejected  Texas's   claim  that  its  new  "law   school  for  Negroes"  was   equivalent  to  thel hite   University  of  Texas  (1950). → But  these  rulings  did  not  directly   address  the  "separate  but  equal"   argument  itself.   Brown  v.  Board  of   Education Thursday,  February  11,  2016 Brown  v.  Board  of   Education Thursday,  February  11,  2016 10:03  AM → Linda  Brown  was  a  third  grade   African  American  child  in  Topeka,   Kansas,  who  was  denied  admission   to  the  school  closest  to  her  home,   which  was  for  white  students  only → The  Court  rules  that  "in  the  field  of   public  education,  the  doctrine  of   'separate  but  equal'  has  no  place.   Separate  educational  facilities  are   inherently  unequal.   Did  Brown  End  Discrimination? → Three  problems  with  Brown's   effects: ○ Delay  in  enforcing  Brown  by   local  officials ○ Brown  only  attacked  de  jure   segregation  but  could  do   little  about  de  facto   segregation ○ Brown  did  not  directly   address  discrimination  in   employment,  voting,  etc.   → The  irony  of  Brown  is  that  it  gave   great  moral  capital  to  the  Court  but   did  not  change  things  much,  at   least  initially The  Rise  of  the  Civil   Rights  Movement Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → Ending  discrimination  required   more  than  the  Brown  decision → The  civil  rights  movement  built   slowly  but  surely  after  Brown,   Rights  Movement Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → Ending  discrimination  required   more  than  the  Brown  decision → The  civil  rights  movement  built   slowly  but  surely  after  Brown,   culminating  in  the  March  on   Washington  in  1963. → This  required  overcoming  a   collective-­‐action  problem School  Desegregation Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → "Massive  Resistance"  to   desegregation  was  largely   successful  after  Brown → After  Little  Rock,  states  used   "pupil  placement"  laws  to  delay   desegregation → The  Civil  Rights  Act  and  later   Court  decisions,  like  Swann,  finally   did  begin  to  desegregate  schools Discrimination  in   Employment Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → Title  VII  of  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of   1964  outlaws  job  discrimination   by  all  private  and  public   employers → In  Griggs  v.  Duke  r1971),   the  Court  put  the  burden  on   employers  to  show  that  an   employment  policy  whose  effect   is  discriminatory,  even  if   discrimination  was  not  the  intent   of  the  policy,  is  a  "business   necessity" Ledbetter  v.  Goodyea(  2007) is  discriminatory,  even  if   discrimination  was  not  the  intent   of  the  policy,  is  a  "business   necessity" Ledbetter  v.  Goodyea(  2007) → The  Court  ruled  that  a  charge  of   discrimination  must  be  brought   within  180  days  of  the  time  the   discrimination  was  alleged  to   have  occurred → Congress  overturned  the  Court's   decision  by  passing  the  Fair  Pay   Act  in  2009 Gender  Discrimination Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → Seneca  Falls  Convention  (1848) → 19th  Amendment  (1920)  grants   women  the  right  to  vote  in  federal   elections → Civil  rights  for  women  accelerates   in  the  1960s → ERA  falls  just  short  of  ratification   in  1982 Discrimination  Against   Latinos  and  Asian   Americans Thursday,  February  11,  2016 10:32  AM → Latinos  and  Asian  Americans  are   among  the  fastest-­‐growing   racial/ethnic  groups → These  groups  have  also  organized   to  pursue  civil  rights: ○ Mendez  v.  Westminster   (1947)  was  an  important   desegregation  precedent   racial/ethnic  groups → These  groups  have  also  organized   to  pursue  civil  rights: ○ Mendez  v.  Westminster   (1947)  was  an  important   desegregation  precedent   prior  to  Brown. ○ Lau  v.  Nichols(  1974)   required  that  students  be   taught  in  a  language  they   understand Status  of  Native   Americans Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → The  Constitution  leaves  the   status  of  Native  Americans   unclear → Legislation  in  1924  grants   citizenship  to  all  those  born  in   the  United  States → The  Indian  Sel-­‐Determination   and  Education  Assistance  Act   (1975)  provides  for  greater   autonomy → No  state  regulation  of  gambling   (1987) Disabilities  and  Age Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → The  Americans  with   Disabilities  Act  (1990)   guarantees  equal  employment   rights  and  access  to  businesses → The  Age  Discrimination  in   Employment  Act  (1967)   prohibits  discrimination  by   employers  with  more  than  20   employees Employment  Act  (1967)   prohibits  discrimination  by   employers  with  more  than  20   employees Sexual  Orientation Thursday,  February  11,  2016 10:41  AM → The  gay  rights  movement  has   become  one  of  the  most   important  contemporary   flashpoints  for  civil  rights, ○ "Don't  Ask,  Don't  Tell"   (recently  repealed) ○ Lawrence  v.  Tex  2003)   overturns  Bowers  v.   Hardwick Affirmative  Action Thursday,  February  11,  2016 10:43  AM A  policy  or  program  designed  to  redress   historic  injustices  committed  against   specific  groups  by  making  special  efforts   to  provide  members  of  these  groups   with  access  to  education  and   employment  opportunities Also  meant  to  encourage  diversity  in   educational  and  employment  settings Regents  of  the   University  of  California   v.  Bakke  (1978) Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → Allan  Bakke,  a  white  man,  applied   to  UC  Davis  Medical  School  and   was  rejected → The  school  had  reserved  16  of  100   v.  Bakke  (1978) Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → Allan  Bakke,  a  white  man,  applied   to  UC  Davis  Medical  School  and   was  rejected → The  school  had  reserved  16  of  100   seats  that  year  for  minority   applicants → Bakke  sued  on  the  basis  that  his   grades  and  test  scores  were  better   than  those  of  some  who  were   admitted → The  Court  ruled  that  UC  Davis's   policy  was  unconstitutional   because  it  maintained  a  quota  and   had  a  separate  admissions  policy   for  minority  students → However,  the  Court  said  that   taking  race  into  account  in   admissions  is  constitutional  if  it   serves  a  "compelling  public   purpose,"  such  as  "achieving  a   diverse  student  body." Gratz  v.  Bollinger   (2003)  Grutter  v.   Bollinger   (2003) Thursday,  February  11,  2016 10:50  AM → In  various  cases,  the  Court   seemed  to  weaken  affirmative   action  but  not  deem  it   unconstitutional  in  the  25  years   since  Bakke. → In  2003,  the  Court  heard  two   cases,  both  from  the  University   of  Michigan,  that  seemed  to   uphold  both  sides  of  Bakke. ○ Race  cannot  be  a  main   criterion  for  admission ○ Race  can  be  taken  into   cases,  both  from  the  University   of  Michigan,  that  seemed  to   uphold  both  sides  of  Bakke. ○ Race  cannot  be  a  main   criterion  for  admission ○ Race  can  be  taken  into   account Affirmative  Action   and  "Preferential   Treatment" Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → Proposition  209,  on  the   California  ballot  in  1996,  sought   to  ban  "preferential  treatment"   for  minorities  by  state  and  local   government  agencies.  It  passed   with  54%  of  the  vote → In  a  1997  vote  in  Houston,   however,  55%  voted  to  support   "affirmative  action"   → What  we  call  "affirmative   action"  matters Limiting  and   Regulating   Collective  Action Thursday,  February  11,  2016 10:56  AM → Civil  liberties  and  civil  rights   have  both  expanded  over  the   past  century → Expansion  of  civil  rights  has   allowed  more  to  take  part  in   collective  decision  making  and   has  imposed  restrictions  on   the  sorts  of  decisions  that  can   be  reached → Expansion  of  civil  rights  has   allowed  more  to  take  part  in   collective  decision  making  and   has  imposed  restrictions  on   the  sorts  of  decisions  that  can   be  reached → Institutions  help  alleviate   collective  action,  but  they  are   limited  and  regulated  by  civil   liberties  and  civil  rights Undocumented   Immigrants  and   Equal  Protection Thursday,  February  11,  2016 → The  Equal  Protection  Clause  of   the  14th  Amendment  states   that  "no  State  shall…  deny  to   any  person  within  its   jurisdiction  the  equal   protection  of  law." → How  far  does  this  require   states  to  go  in  providing   services  and  equal  legal   protection  to  undocumented   immigrants?


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