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Ento 2010 Week 5 Notes

by: Caitlin Conner

Ento 2010 Week 5 Notes ENTO 2010

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Entomology > ENTO 2010 > Ento 2010 Week 5 Notes
Caitlin Conner
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Lecture Notes from February 8-February 12
Insects & the Environment
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
 Ento 2010 Week 5 Notes  February 8, 2016 o Insect chemical ecology  The relationship between a chemical, an insect, and the insect’s environment o Thomas Eisner  Department of Entomology  Cornell University o A black beetle is attacked by ants  Bombardier beetle is not attacked  Sprays toxic chemical from abdomen  Mouse kills beetle by forcing end of its abdomen into the soil o Bombardier beetle  Chemical reaction takes place in the abdomen  Reaction produces:Quinones + Heat + Oxygen + Noise  Toxic spray can be aimed o Bolas spider  Spider spins a silk strand with sticky ball on end  Throws ball at prey and then reels it in  Catches moth of only 1 species  All moths are male  Spider emits smell like the female moth sex pheromone  Male moth is attracted to spider and caught o Use GC/MS to identify insect chemicals  Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry o Many insects produce (or sequester) toxic chemicals for defense o Aposematic : bright coloration warns potential predators of the chemical defense o Monarch Butterfly  Larvae feed on milkweed  Sequester toxic alkaloids  Larvae and adults are aposematic  Protected from predators o Video Caterpillar eats toxic plant  Caterpillar and adult moth are aposematic  Spider rejects toxic moth  Accepts “lab moth” with no toxin  Birds learn to avoid aposematic moth  Spiders do not learn to avoid aposematic moth  Male moth gives toxin to female moth  Female moth selects most toxic male moth o Eisner: “We should form a global alliance to protect the environment.”  February 10, 2016 o Ecology: the relationship between organisms and their environment o Insect ecology : the relationship between insects and their environment o Grizzly Bear Habitat  Montana  Bears and people compete for space  have become a danger  need to find “old” food sources  now feed on a tiny moth o Mutualism: relationship between 2 species that benefits both parties o Symbiosis: intimate relationship between 2 species, usually involving coevolution o Coevolution: occurrence of genetically determined traits in 2 species selected by the mutual interactions controlled by these traits o Dan Janzen in Costa Rica:  Ants live in Acacia tree  Mutualistic relationship  Ants protect tress from leaf-eating insects  Tree provides: o Ants live in the thorns o Eat sugar from glands at leaf base o Eat Beltian bodies (rich in fat) from leaf tip  Other interactions on the ant-Acacia:  Beetle protected with thick cuticle  2 wasp species protect each other (mutualism)  bird nest; ants attack for awhile  in trees with no wasps : o monkey attacks bird nests  spreads plant seeds o Environmental concerns:  Threat to Monarch Butterflies  Larvae fed milkweed with pollen from B.t.-corn die (lab study)  Pollen may blow from B.t.-corn to nearby plants and cause death of monarch butterflies  Field studies show pollen does not go far  Mistletoe Butterfly:  Lay eggs on mistletoe  Larvae eat leaves  Mistletoe is a parasite of eucalyptus  Mistletoe birds feed on mistletoe berries  Birds defecate seeds onto eucalyptus branch  Mistletoe seeds germinate on eucalyptus  February 12, 2016 o Biodiversity:  Variation in living organisms  Humans have disproportionate impact on all others species  Species loss is greater than ever before  Deforestation=27 million acres/year  Research should use biodiversity to increase food production and yield new medicines o E.O Wilson  Harvard University  1992  The Diversity of Life o Named species of plants and animals: 1.82 million o Bird species in New Guinea  Museum collection says 125  Native say 124  Bird species are distinct o Ant species in New Guinea  Museum collection says 95  Natives say 1  An ant is an ant o There is greater biodiversity in the tropics  From 1 tree in Peru: 43 species of ants  Equal to the number of all ant species in the United Kingdom o Forest Canopy  Many of the unknown species of insects are in the forest canopy  Get into forest canopy with ropes, cranes, and walkways o How many insect species are there?  Terry Erwin  Smithsonian Institute  Washington D.C.  Estimate arthropod tropical biodiversity o Look at 1 tree species in Panama o Fog tree with pesticide o Find 1,200 beetle species o 163 are host-specific o there are 50,000 tropical trees o there are 8,000,000 beetles o beetles=40% of arthropods  total=20,000,000 o Ground-dwelling=10,000,000 o Total tropical arthropods=30,000,000 o There are between 10,000,000 and 30,000,000 insect species on Earth o E.O. Wilson  Theory of Island Biogeography  Deforestation creates “islands”  How many species can exist in such “islands”?  How big should a protected National Park be? o Loss of biodiversity due to habitat destruction o Species loss:  Dinosaur age=1 species every 1000 years  Today=1 species every day o Food plants have lost biodiversity !  1970 corn blight in U.S.  $5 billion damage


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