CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, week 5 notes
CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, week 5 notes Crju 3200
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alison Carr on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Crju 3200 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Lab in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Crime Prevention and Security in Criminal Justice at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
CRJU 3200: Crime Prevention and Security, Spring Semester 2016 Week 5 Community Building Rationale Union Avenue Corridor (Portland, Oregon): 3.5 miles long Mixed Residential area: low income to middle income residents, minority (mostly black), crime rate was 3 times higher than the rest of the city 5 goals: o 1. Improve physical conditions o 2. Increase level of social cohesion o 3. Reduce level of crime o 4. Reduce level of fear o 5. Improve quality of life (residents and business men) And what did they find out and how? o Extensive interviews: asked neighbors what the problems were, if they were scared, if they knew their neighbors, and how bad the area is according to the people who live in it o Observations: rated the neighborhood and used official crime data o Went on for 4 years (1976-1980) o Problems: did not have a good control group Results: o 1. Improved physical conditions: improved street lighting, changed traffic patterns, no parking on the street, no change in level of business, no change in fear of crime. o 2. Increase level of social cohesion: (how do you measure social cohesion?) how you feel about the police is a good proxy for social cohesion, this should increase, but there was no change in peoples’ attitudes towards the police, no change in whether people would help their neighbors, and no type 2 changes o 3. Reduce level of crime: no difference in the level of crime according to victimization surveys, no type 1 changes, official data suggested a decline in commercial burglary and a decline in street robberies. o 4. Reduce of level of fear: victimization surveys said there was no basic change of fear of crime, and there was an increase fear in customers at night. o 5. Improved quality of life: focused just on businesses (are their sales going up?)- sales went up and the businessmen said things were getting better (macro level). England: Reducing Burglary Initiative (RBI, 1999-2000) Funding 63 projects Local communities identified themselves with problems of burglary Asked the residents what is causing the burglaries Asked the residents what the best way was to go about fixing the problem Implementation was up to the residents Focused on physical design changes Good evaluations (55/63) Significant reductions in burglaries in 40/55 evaluated projects by 50% or more United Kingdom: Secure by Design If and when communities build things, they have to get law enforcement involved Must follow good design principle (defensible space) Evaluation showed a reduction in burglary Long term follow-up suggests that this program does last Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Physical design changes can reduce crime and fear of crime Challenge: Sally Merry o Saw a house that met the qualifications for defensible space and still had crime problems o She moved into the neighborhood and conducted interviews o Lasted for 18 months o She asked burglars why they burglarize o She found that features of CPTED were not that good o Wrote a conclusion, “Defensible Space Undefended” Second Generation CPTED Focused on physical design Focused on cohesion and territoriality Third Generation CPTED Relies on technology and cyber advances Focused on green environmental design Neighborhood Crime Prevention: Increasing surveillance o Citizens pay attention and take action Recognizing that there is a problem ProblemsStrategiesIntervening factorsIntermediate outcomesLong term outcomes KEY TO NCP: citizen involvement
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