PSC 1003; Lecture 4
PSC 1003; Lecture 4 PSC 1003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleanor Parry on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Farrell, H in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Theory of Int Pol - Waltz Anarchic Orders and Balance of Power 1. Violence at Home and Abroad A. State of Nature is State of War. B. Absence of Government is the Occurrence of Violence. C. Struggles to Achieve and Maintain Power, Establish Order, and Contrive Justice System is Bloody. D. Distinction between International and Nation Realms are the Different Structures. E. Governments have the right to use force to control the use of force by it's subjects. a. Have the only legitimate monopoly on the use of force 2. Interdependence and Integration A. Specialization Leads to Interdependence. B. Cost of Breaking Interdependence is High. C. Integration Draws Part of A Nation Closely Together, Interdependence Draws Nations Loosely Connected. D. Limits on International Integration a. Even the prospect of large gains for both parties does not elicit cooperation as long as nations fear how each other will use increased capabilities. b. A state worries about a division of possible gains that may favors others more than itself. c. Highly interdependent nations are more vulnerable than independent ones. d. Favor autonomy rather than increased well being. 3. Structures and Strategies A. Structures cause actions to have consequences that they were not intended to have. B. With each country constrained to take care of itself, no one can take care of the system. C. No global agency to provide solutions to global issues. D. States main priority is self preservation, so they can't be relied upon to do whats necessary for worlds survival. E. Remedy for strong structural effect is structural change. 4. Virtues of Anarchy A. Self Help is principle of action in an anarchic order. B. Self Help situation is high risk - bankruptcy in economic realm and war of free states C. In a society of states with little coherence, attempts at world government would founder on the inability of an emerging central authority to mobilize the resources needed to create and maintain the unity of the system by regulating and managing parts -- Lead to world civil war. D. Minimum agreements that permit separate existence can lead to less violence E. Wars among states only determine the allocation of gains and losses among questions and only settle for a short time who is stronger. F. Nationally, relations of authority are established. Internationally, only relations of strength result. G. National politics is realm of authority, of administration, and of law. H. International politics is realm of power, struggle, and accommodation. a. Anarchic, decentralized, horizontal, homogeneous, undirected, and mutually adaptive I. Ultima Ratio - International Political Force that serves as first and constant one 5. Anarchy and Hierarchy A. Anarchy - Presence of disorder and chaos RealPolitik 1. Leader and states interest provide spring of action. 2. Necessities of policy arise from unregulated competition of states. 3. Calculation of necessities can discover policies that best serve states interests. 4. Success is ultimate test of policy. 5. Balance of Power A. order be anarchic B. populated by units wishing to survive Offense-Defense Balance Are Offense and Defense Distinguishable? Who has the Advantage? Distinguishable and Offensive: • Qualitative Arms control is feasible and valuable, but risky. • Signaling is feasible and valuable but risky Distinguishable and Defensive: • Qualitative arms control is feasible, but less valuable, because security is high. • Signaling is feasible, but less valuable Indistinguishable and Offensive: • Arms Race is intense • Expansion is easy • War is frequent Indistinguishable and Defensive: • Arms race are mild • Expansion is difficult • War is infrequent Negative Consequences of Security Dilemma • Higher incentives to engage in pre-emptive war. • May provoke mistakes. • May make peace less likely. Bargaining Account of War • Starts from basic pre-assumption - that war is politics of other means. • One starts a war because one wants to get something out of it. ◦ Territory, change in policy, reparations • Others will defend against war if they think the benefits outweigh the costs • War becomes a kind of bargaining Interesting Implications: • War should only happen if a peaceful solution is impossible, or someone is making a mistake. ◦ War is costly. ◦ It'd be cheaper to reach an agreement without war. ◦ Athenian argument to Melians. Actors Systematically Make Mistakes • States may want to let others know how powerful their armed forces are, to deter others from attacking. ◦ But some military asses depend on the other side not knowing about their existence. ◦ This and other kinds of information gap may lead to war. ◦ War here in part is a process of finding out how strong the other side is. When Actors Cant Reach a Bargain • Bargain requires divisibility. ◦ Compromise • States or other actors may fight over things that are indivisible ◦ Israel vs Palestine over Jerusalem • Hard to reach mutually beneficial agreement Can't Trust Other Party • Sometimes actors cannot make deals that will stick. • More power = Less likely to be trusted • Pre-emptive Wars Ukraine and Security Dilemma • NATO - Russia standoff • Ukraine becoming westernized would have made Russia less secure. Ukraine and Bargaining Model • Mistakes ◦ Over intentions, not military power. • Indivisibility ◦ Hard to create truly autonomous Ukraine . • Lack of Trustworthiness ◦ Destabilizes Ukraine, it is easier for Russia to make further territorial gains.
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