PSC 1003; Lecture 6
PSC 1003; Lecture 6 PSC 1003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleanor Parry on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Farrell, H in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Liberalism and Institutions • An alternative to Realism • Agrees that the international system is Anarchic. • However, it is possible for states to cooperate to solve common problems. • International institutions play a key role in underpinning cooperation. Liberalism and Anarchy • Different understandings of what anarchy does. ◦ Realists - argue that anarchy leads to security fears and self help. ◦ Liberals - anarchy makes it tougher to solve problems. ‣ Government within state provides collective goods - roads, etc. ‣ No real equivalent in international politics Not Just Hegemonic State • Old answer was that hegemonic state in the system would provide public goods. ◦ Until 1970 • Even when US withdrew, states kept cooperating. Liberalism and Institutions • Liberals like Keohane began to argue that states could cooperate 'after hegemony'. • International institutions played a key role. • Institutions could not control states. • But they could provide valuable tools for states to work together collectively. • Panoply of institutions - UN, IMF, WTO, NATO, OSCE. 1. Institutions Provide Information • Very often problems are complex and hard to figure out. • Institutions can provide information that allows states to understand problems and perhaps resolve them. • Role of: ◦ IMF ◦ OECD ◦ World Bank 2. Institutions Make Rules • Even in anarchy, institutions can set or embody rules. • Even without a world policeman, rules allow different states to agree on how best to work together to solve a problem. • Provide clarity and coordinate efforts. • May have socialized officials to interpret rules in ambiguous situations. ◦ WTO ◦ OSCE 3. Institutions Monitor Compliance • Help states to identify scofflaws by checking to see who is complying with rules and who is not. ◦ Reporting requirements ◦ Inspections • States can then individually or collective criticize, ostracize or punch rule breakers. World Trade Organization • WTO - key trade institution 1. Set out basic rules of world trading system. 2. Provides a means to resolve disputes. 3. Monitors members to see how well they are doing at maintaining open trade. Rules of Trade • WTO has detailed rules, which are intended to remove barriers to trade. ◦ Lower tariffs and import duties. ◦ Tries to prevent more subtle forms of protectionism. • Rules have been negotiated in successive 'rounds' between states. ◦ EU and US have predominated in past. ◦ Little progress in areas like agriculture, problems of IP Dispute Resolution Mechanism • Disputes often arise over trade - three fold process 1. Informal Discussion between governments. 2. Creation of Panel, which will judge the case. 3. Possible appeal of decisions to Appellate Body of WTO. A. Compensation or permission to retaliate. Monitoring • WTO monitors members to see how well they are doing in lowering barriers to trade. • May issue recommendations - but no binding authority • Much weaker than i.e. IAEA ◦ Settlement and dispute resolution process provide an informal means of monitoring and sanctioning. ◦ Interests>government cases> Security Dilemma • Even two power seekers may end in Spiral Model • Uncertainty About Others Intentions • Increasing security of others, makes you more secure • Nazi Germany - Appeasement was all about making them feel more secure • Differentiable and Balance • Regime type is irrelevant • Intentions and Greed Signs of Defensive Status Quo Power • Unilateral Restraint • Unilateral Defense • Arms Control Realism 1. Structural A. All states are rational and act in the same way a. Offensive 1. All states want to power maximize 2. Achieve hegemony 3. Status Quo state is the hegemony b. Defensive 1. Cooperation is key through signaling c. Waltzian 1. Too much power is not necessarily a good thing 2. Motivational A. Motivations of States B. Greedy V Status Quo States International Institutions: Can Interdependence Work? The rules that govern elements and the organizations that help implement those rules. Theory and Reality • US rejection of Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations. • UN with many specialized agencies performing different tasks commanded international recognition. • NATO most successful multilateral alliance. • IMF is the centerpiece of efforts by major capitalist democracies to regulate monetary policy. • Global issues require systematic policy coordination. • "Institutional Regimes" - structures of rules and norms that could be more or less informal. • Legalism - law can be effective regardless of political conditions. • Create capability for states to cooperate in mutually beneficial ways by reducing costs of making and enforcing agreements • Reinforce practices of reciprocity. • General conformity to rules makes behavior of states more predictable. • Reducing uncertainty and cutting costs of agreements, institutions help states reach collective gains. Yesterday's Controversies 1. Institutions inherently insignificant because states wield only real power. 2. Lack of world government to which victims of injustice can appeal to. 3. Cooperation only emerges after discord and tough bargaining. Todays Debates • Bargaining leads to concerns about subjectivity bc it depends on the beliefs of the parties involved. • Cold war politics was about pursing "national interests" shaped by geopolitical and economic realities. • Norm of "self determination" based on how state's public identify. • Importance of ideas, norms, and information. • Informational Structures ◦ Determine what principles are acceptable for reducing conflict and deciding government actions as legitimate or not. ◦ Help shape expectations. • Create differentiated information with actors interpreting and manipulating policies in certain ways. • Cooperation with institutional policy is accounted for the degree of common interests and distribution of power. Overcoming the Democratic Deficit • Creating powerful form of world regulation. • Increasingly laying down rules and regulations that states must abide by for foreign investment and growth. • High officials and global elites make rules mostly. • Economic interdependence and its regulation have altered notions of state sovereignty. • Democratic theory gives public role of deciding the distributional and value tradeoffs inherent in regulation and legislation. • Growth of networks among individuals and NGO's • Long chains of delegation can actually reduce significance of public opinion • International Institutions responsible to state governments which are responsible for public opinion. • Voluntary pluralism under conditions of maximum transparency and accountability. The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues Summary • Made up of 150 nations • Covers broad range of goods and services trade and applies to all government practices concerning trade. ◦ Tariffs, subsidies, government procurement, and intellectual copy-right laws. Background • Sought to establish an open and non-discriminatory trading system with goal of rising economic well being. • Followed General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). • Ministerial Conference - Body of political representatives which examine current programs and sets agenda for future work. • General Council oversees day to day operations. ◦ Trade Policy Review Mechanism ◦ Dispute Settlement Body • Specialized Bodies of General Council ◦ Council for Trade in Goods ◦ Council for Trade in Services ◦ Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Copy-Rights Policy Issues 1. Achievement of US goals through a multilateral forum. A. Pursue trade interests through other regional and bilateral agreements. 2. Assurance of US sovereignty in trade decisions. A. No actual enforcement of adherence to WTO obligations. B. Unilateral action contrary to WTO rules, weakens institution as whole. 3. The WTO dispute process and US interests. A. Forum for peacefully resolving issues rather than more dramatic measures. 4. Traditional and nontraditional topics in WTO. A. Refrain from extending from traditional issues bc greatest export opportunities will only be achieved if negotiators focus on trade barriers rather than social factors. B. Labor and Environment. 5. The congressional role in US participation in the WTO. A. Constitutional authority of conduct over foreign commerce. B. Need for repeated authorization of trade promotion authority interrupts US trade policy and keeps them from participating in negotiations.
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