Popular in Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 40 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 252 at Purdue University taught by Kenneth F. Kellner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Laboratory In Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
FNR252:LaboratoryinEcologyandSystematics ofAmphibians,Reptiles,andBirds LAB 2: CAUDATA (SALAMANDERS) CaudataCharacteristics Distribution • Temperate, forested regions of northern hemisphere • Limited by moisture and temperature Morphology and Physiology • Cylindrical bodies, distinct heads, most have well-defined limbs • Skin moist and usually smooth • Larvae and adults have long tails , often rounded or flattened • Adults can regenerate tail and limbs when lost Diet • Carnivorous and sometimes cannibalistic Lifestyle ◦ Most biphasic • Some species fully aquatic, other fully terrestrial or arboreal • Generally secretive, avoid direct sunlight, crepuscular or nocturnal • Paedomorphosis has been observed in all families SalamanderReproduction Typically have biphasic life cycle • Fully aquatic and terrestrial variants Most internal fertilization • Spermatophore deposition • Phermonal cues used for reproduction • Often require elaborate courtship behavior Almost all species oviparous • Sometimes see egg guarding behavior WhatamI? Lizard Salamander Scales Ear opening No scales Claws No ear opening No claws Tadpole Salamander Enclosed gills Larva No legs External gills 4 legs Terminology some salamanders which increase the surface area off the skin for water absorption. Characteristic of the Ambystomatidae family. Nasolabial Grooves - Grooves that run from the nose to the mouth. Characteristics of the Plethodontidae family. environment, rather than set inside the pharynx and covered by gill slits. Set on a frill of stalks protruding from the head. TerminologyContinued Mental Glands- Circular glands found on the chin of some male salamanders. Seen in the Plethodontidae family. Paratoid Glands- Permanent glandular structures behind the heads of some salamanders. These glands contain toxins used to deter predation. Nuptial Pads- Rough keratinized pads found on the chest or limbs of some male salamanders which allows the to maintain a grip on the female during amplexus. FamiliesCovered ◦Cryptobranchidae (genus Cryptobranchus) ◦Sirenidae (genus Siren) ◦Ambystomatidae (genus Ambystoma) ◦Amphiumidae (genus Amphiuma) ◦Plethodontidae (genera Desmognathus, Eurycea, and Plethodon) ◦Proteidae (genus Necturus) ◦Salamandridae (genus Notophthalmus) Cryptobranchidae Only 3 species (only one present in North America) Large, aquatic Nocturnal, hide beneath submerged rocks Not great swimmers, walk on bottom of streams External Fertilization Flattened body with 4 limbs, lack eyelids No external gills, subcutaneous respiration Folds along sides of body, keeled tail Long-lived hellbender (Cryptobranchusalleganiensis) Diet • Adults: crayfish, fish • Larvae: aquatic insects, earthworms Distribution • Southern and Eastern United States Habitat • Fast-flowing, cool, streams and rivers Reproduction • Mate from August – September • Males act as “Den Master” • Males guard nest &feature=youtu.bebe.com/watch?v=c_Uyz1W1erI hellbenderID • Large • No external gills in adults • Circular gill opening on each side of neck • Flat head and body • Wrinkled, fleshy fold of skin on each side of the body • Small, lidless eyes • Sex can only be distinguished during breeding season Sirenidae Strictly North American Aquatic, eel-like, neotenic Elongate bodies, small front limbs, no hind limbs Lidless eyes, teeth replaced by beak-like horny sheath Paired external gills Can survive droughts by burrowing in mud Can cross land on rainy nights lessersiren (Sirenintermedia) Diet • Aquatic invertebrates, incidental aquatic vegetation consumption Distribution • Southern United States Habitat • Warm, shallow, quiet waters • Ditches, sloughs, ponds, swamps Reproduction • Breed in early spring • One of the few vocal salamander species • Don’t know mode of fertilization lessersirenID • Long, slender eel-like body • No hind legs • Tiny front legs, each with 4 toes • External gills, 3 gill slits • Brown to black , sometimes olive green • Laterally compressed tail with pointed tail Ambystomatidae Found throughout most of North America “Mole” salamanders because they stay underground except during spring and fall migrations Stout-bodies, robust limbs, thick tails, prominent costal grooves Short blunt heads, protruding eyes Most species have aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults Neotenic forms fully aquatic Internal fertilization Hybridization Jeffersonsalamander (Ambystomajeffersonianum) Diet • Earthworms, slugs, and insects Distribution • Northeastern United States and Southern Canada H• Moist, upland, hardwood forests • Under debris near swamps and ponds Reproduction • Hybridizes with blue-spotted • Mates from December – January • Extensive Courtship JeffersonsalamanderID •Gray, brown, black on dorsal surface •Lighter shade on belly •May have silver or blue specks on sides and limbs •Slender (for an ambystomatid) •Long, wedge-shaped snout •Distinctive long toes spottedsalamander (Ambystomamaculatum) Diet • Earthworms and other invertebrates Distribution • Eastern United States Habitat • Moist, deciduous forests • Need ephemeral pools for reproduction Reproduction • Mate from March-April • Developing egg masses green from symbiotic algae • Explosive breeders spottedsalamanderID •Stout •Wide snouts •Dorsal color black, bluish black, or slate orange spots from head to tailto •Spots do not extend to sides or belly •Belly color is slate gray (with no spots) marbledsalamander (Ambystomaopacum) Diet • Earthworms and other invertebrates Distribution • Southeastern United States Habitat • Deciduous forests with moist soil Reproduction • Fall breeders • Females lay eggs in sheltered depression that fills with rain water • Females guard eggs until they hatch marbledsalamanderID •Dorsal crossbands on black backgrounds •Silvery gray on females •White on males •Crossbands variable, sometimes incomplete •Belly or lower sides are black •Body is stout •Male more brightly-colored than female easterntigersalamander (Ambystomatigrinum) Diet • Earthworms and other invertebrates Distribution • Central United States Habitat • Varied including bottomland forests, conifer stand, open fields, and grasslands Morphology • Largest terrestrial salamander • Neoteny common in western populations Reproduction • Mates from February - March • Hybridizes with small-mouthed salamander easterntigersalamanderID •Grey, green, or black •Yellowish dorsal spots irregular in shape and distribution •Spots extend well onto sides and belly •Have large, lidded eyes •Short snouts •Thick necks •Sturdy legs •Long tails easterntigersalamander(neotenic)ID •External gills •May be confused with a mudpuppy •5 toes on hind feet Plethodontidae Largest salamander family (2/3 of world’s species) Occurs in North America, Central America, Northern South America, and Europe Lungless (respiration through skin and lining of mouth) All have nasolabial grooves Generally occupy cooler, moister habitats than ambystomatids Most small with narrow bodies Many species skip aquatic larval stage northernduskysalamander (Desmognathusfuscus) Diet • Insect larvae and adults, earthworms Distribution • Northeastern United States Habitat • Wooded seeps, spring, and rocky creeks Phylogeny • Belongs to subfamily Desmognathinae Reproduction • Aquatic larvae northernduskysalamanderID •Body color gray or brown, with darker marking •Angled jaw •Hind limbs stouter than forelimbs •Keeled tail •Base of tail usually lighter than rest of dorsum and bordered by dark scallops •Belly lightly mottled with gray or brown •Pale line from eye to angle of jaw southerntwo-linedsalamander (Euryceacirrigera) Diet • Small invertebrates Distribution • Midwestern and Southern United States Habitat • Wooded brooks, springs, seeps, and rocky creeks Life History • Some populations neotenic Reproduction • Mate from April-May • Aquatic larvae southerntwo-linedsalamanderID •2 dark lines border a broad, light middorsal stripe •Often breaks up into dots or dashes on tail •Dorsal color always yellowish •Middorsal stripe usually peppered with black spots •Tail keeled and laterally compressed long-tailedsalamander (Eurycealongicauda) Diet • Insects Distribution • Midwestern and Eastern United States Habitat • Caves, springs, and surrounding forests Reproduction • Mate from late fall to early spring • Aquatic larvae long-tailedsalamanderID •Body yellow, orange, or red •Belly yellow •Only yellowish salamander with vertical black marking on the tail cavesalamander (Eurycealucifuga) Diet • Insects Distribution • Midwestern and Southern United States Habitat •limestone or other calcareous rocked • Excellent climbers with prehensile tail Reproduction • Mate in summer or early autumn • Aquatic larvae cavesalamanderID •Tail longer than body •Orange to reddish orange bodies •Pale unmarked ventral surface •Irregularly space black dots and dashes on dorsal surface •Long limbs easternred-backedsalamander (Plethodoncinereus) Diet • Insects D• Midwestern and Eastern United States • Common and abundant Habitat •forestsconiferous and deciduous • Burrows underground during dry weather Reproduction • Mate in fall • Young direct developers easternred-backedsalamanderID Long, slender body Mottled salt-and- pepper belly Lead-backed and red-backed variants Lead-back uniformly light gray to black (may be orange, yellow, or light gray) stripe on mid-dorsal line form base of head to tail Proteidae Occur in central and eastern North America and Southern Europe Fully aquatic, neotenic, moderately sized Broad flat head, large external gills, compressed tails, and well developed limbs Internal fertilization Females guard eggs mudpuppy (Necturusmaculosus) Diet •invertebratesall fish, aquatic Distribution • Eastern North America H• Permanent water including lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams Reproduction • Mates in fall • Females lay eggs the following spring mudpuppyID •Large body •4 feet, each with 4 toes •External gills retained in adults •Dark stripe through eye •Body gray or rust-brown to black •Dorsal surface often with scattered dark spots •Grayish belly with dark spots Salamandridae Eastern and Western North America, Europe, Africa and Asia Skin typically thick and granular rather than smooth Granular surface due to the presence of numerous glands that secrete toxins Many species brightly colored Indistinct costal grooves Internal fertilization easternnewt Notophtalmusviridescens Diet • Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates Distribution • Eastern North America Habitat • Aquatic stages ponds and small lakes, marshes, ditches, and quiet portions of streams • Terrestrial stages in damp forests Reproduction • 4 life stages: egg, aquatic larva, terrestrial eft (subadult stage), aquatic adult easternnewtID •Granular skin •Up to 21 red spots present during all life stages •green with a yellow ventral surface •with small black spotspered •Red eft is bright orange-red to dull red orange • During breeding season male develops swollen vent and a keeled tail
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