BIO 1101 Week 6 Notes
BIO 1101 Week 6 Notes BIOLOGY 1101 (Evan Waletzko)
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophie_ on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY 1101 (Evan Waletzko) at Ohio State University taught by Evan Waletzko in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 218 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology (BIO 1101, Evan Waletzko) in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Sophie Chang StudySoup 2016 Biology 1101 Week 6 Notes Included in this document (page #s): • 15 Carmen quiz questions and answers (1-3) • Quizlet links for this chapter (3) • Take-Home Messages for this week’s required and suggested readings – textbooks notes to come in the next study guide! (3-4) • Slide notes and in-class activities (5-7) Earned 5/5 points. 1. Peas were well-suited for Mendel's breeding experiments for all of the following reasons except: a. Peas have a particularly long time between generations. b. Many of the characteristics that vary in pea plants are controlled by single genes. c. It is easy to obtain large numbers of offspring from any given cross. d. Peas exhibit variations in a number of observable characteristics, such as flower color and seed shape. e. Mendel and his staff could control the pollination between different pea plants. 2. In pea plants, purple flower color is dominant to white flower color. If two pea plants that are true-breeding for white flowers are crossed, then the offspring will be the following: a. Half of the flowers will be purple and half will be white. b. One-quarter of the flowers will be purple and three-quarters will be white. c. All of the flowers will be purple. d. Three-quarters of the flowers will be purple and one-quarter will be white. e. All of the flowers will be white. 3. In snapdragons, flower color is inherited as a trait with incomplete dominance. There is an allele, Cw, that produces no pigment (white), and an allele, CR, that produces red pigment. A plant with the CWCR genotype will produce ____ flowers. a. Red b. White c. No d. Pink e. Two kinds of 4. In the case of Mendel's peas, a single gene determined the height of the plant; however, in humans, adult height is influenced by many genes. A trait such as human height is said to be: a. Multi-allelic. b. Incompletely dominant. c. Polygenic. d. Codominant. e. Pleiotropic. 5. Genes that are ______ do not assort independently, but they may recombine by crossing over. a. Polygenic b. Pleiotropic c. Linked d. Continuously variable e. Epistatic 6. Most genes come in alternative forms called: a. Chromosomes b. Alleles c. Gametes d. Recessives 1 Sophie Chang StudySoup 2016 e. Dominants 7. Capital letters represent a dominant allele, and lower case for a recessive allele. At locus a (position along the gene), the individual bearing these two chromosomes is: a. Heterozygous for the recessive allele b. Heterozygous for the dominant phenotype c. Homozygous for the dominant phenotype d. Homozygous for the dominant allele e. Homozygous for the recessive allele 8. The law of segregation states that: a. An allele on one chromosome will always segregate from an allele on a different chromosome. b. The number of chromosomes in a cell is always divisible by 2. c. Gametes cannot be separate and equal. d. The transmission of genetic diseases within families is always recessive. e. Each of two alleles for a given trait segregate into different gametes. 9. Which term refers to the genetic control of continuously varying traits such as height? a. Incomplete dominance b. Pleiotropic c. Multi-allelic d. Polygenic e. Codominant 10. Linked genes: a. Never have multiple alleles b. Never show crossing over c. Are on the same chromosome d. Have alleles that assort independently of each other e. Must be immediately adjacent to each other on the same chromosome 11. Which of the following did Gregor Mendel never see? a. An F2 generation b. A hybrid c. A pea d. A chromosome e. A stamen 12. A cross between homozygous red-eyed flies and homozygous white-eyed flies results in baby flies that all have red eyes. This result demonstrates: a. A dihybrid cross b. Dominance of genes c. The blending model of genetics d. The norm of reaction e. The law of independent assortment 13. The offspring from each cross done in Mendel's pea experiments always looked like one of the two parental varieties because: a. Each allele affected phenotypic expression. b. Many different genes interacted to produce the F1 phenotype. c. One allele showed complete dominance over the other. d. The traits blended together because of crossing-over in meiosis. e. Many different genes interacted to produce the parental phenotype. 14. Which of the following is NOT a continuously varying trait? a. Skin color b. Weight 2 Sophie Chang StudySoup 2016 c. Eye color d. Sickle-cell disease e. Height 15. We say that genes are linked when they: a. Are responsible for producing the same protein. b. Contain multiple alleles. c. Assort independently. d. Are located near each other on a single chromosome. e. Produce a balanced polymorphism. https://quizlet.com/42206888/bio-101-exam-3-practice-quiz-flash-cards/ https://quizlet.com/22935440/biology-flash-cards/ https://quizlet.com/22906234/bio_chapter-7-flash-cards/ https://quizlet.com/42073051/bio-101-ch-7-prep-u-flash-cards/ Chapter 7 Mendelian Inheritance (from our textbook, What Is Life?) 7.1-1.5 Why do offspring resemble their parents? 7.1 Family resemblance: your mother and father each contribute to your genetic makeup. Take-Home Message 7.1 Offspring resemble their parents because they inherit genes -instruction sets for biochemical, physical, and behavioral traits, some of which are responsible for diseases -from their parents. 7.2 Some traits are controlled by a single gene. Take-Home Message More than 9,000 human traits are determined by the instructions a person carries on a single gene, and the traits exhibit straightforward patterns of inheritance. 7.3 Mendel learned about heredity by conducting experiments. Take-Home Message 7.3 In the mid-1800s, Gregor Mendel conducted studies that helped us understand how traits are inherited. He applied methodical experimentation and rigorous hypothesis testing, focusing on easily observed and categorized traits in garden peas. 7.4 Segregation: you've only got two copies of each gene but put only one copy in each sperm or egg. Take-Home Message 7.4 Each parent puts into every sperm or egg it makes a single set of instructions for building a particular trait. This instruction set is what today we call a gene. The trait observed in an individual depends on the two copies (alleles) of the gene it inherits from its parents. 7.5 Observing an individual's phenotype is not sufficient for determining its genotype. Take-Home Message 7.5 It is not always possible to determine an individual's genetic makeup, known as its genotype, by observation of the organism's outward appearance, known as its phenotype. For a particular trait, an individual may carry a recessive allele whose phenotypic effect is masked by the presence of a dominant allele. Much genetic analysis therefore 3 Sophie Chang StudySoup 2016 makes use of clever experiments and careful record-keeping, using Punnett squares, to determine organisms' genotypes. 7.6-7.8 Probability and change play central roles in genetics. 7.6 Chance is important in genetics. Take-Home Message 7.6 Probability plays a central role in genetics. In segregation, each gamete that an individual produces receives only one of the two copies of each gene the individual carries in its other cells, but it is impossible to know which allele goes into the gamete. Chance plays a role in fertilization, too: all of the sperm or eggs produced by an individual are different from one another, and any one of those gametes may be the gamete involved in fertilization. 7.9-7.14 The translation of genotypes into phenotypes is not a black box. 7.9 Incomplete dominance and codominance: the effects of both alleles in a genotype can show up in the phenotype. Take-Home Message 7.9 Sometimes the effects of both alleles in a heterozygous genotype are evident in the phenotype. With incomplete dominance, a heterozygote appears to be intermediate between the two homozygotes. With codominance, a heterozygote displays characteristics of both homozygotes. 7.11 Multigene traits: how are continuously varying traits such as height influenced by genes? Take-Home Message 7.11 Many traits, including continuously varying traits such as height, eye color, and skin color, are influenced by multiple genes. 7.12 Sometimes one gene influences multiple traits. Take-Home Message 7.12 In pleiotropy, one gene influences multiple unrelated traits. Most, if not all, genes may be pleiotropic. 7.13 Why are more men than women color-blind? Sex-linked traits differ in their patterns of expression in males and females. Take-Home Message 7.13 The patterns of inheritance of most traits do not differ between males and females. However, when a trait is coded for by a gene on a sex chromosome, such as color vision on the X chromosome, the pattern of expression differs for males and females. Suggested 7.15 Most traits are passed on as independent features: Mendel's law of independent assortment. Take-Home Message 7.15 Genes tend to behave independently, such that the inheritance pattern of one trait doesn't usually influence the inheritance of any other trait. 7.16 Red hair and freckles: genes on the same chromosome are sometimes inherited together. Take-Home Message 7.16 Sometimes, having one trait, such as red hair, influences the presence of another trait, such as pale skin. This is because the alleles for two genes are inherited and expressed almost as a package deal when the genes are located close together on the same chromosome. 4 Sophie Chang StudySoup 2016 Slides What I think is important is the crossing over part and the part in the end. • Interphase -development, growth • Crossing over phase • Last -results in gametes, each with a unique allele distribution o Alleles are versions of our genes Crossing over, genetic recombination • The most complex of all phases of meiosis • Paired chromosomes swap alleles In-class activity Die rolls: 2 ABcdefg, abCDEFG 6 ABCDEFg, abcdefG 3 ABCdefg, abcDEFG 1 Abcdefg, aBCDEFG 3 ABCdefg, abcDEFG 3 ABCdefg, abcDEFG 4 ABCDefg, abcdEFG 6 ABCDEFg, abcdefG 1 Abcdefg, aBCDEFG 6 ABCDEFg, abcdefG Data Table # of times "a" is on the same chromosome # of times "a" is on the same chromosome as: as: B 2 b 8 C 3 c 7 D 6 d 4 E 7 e 3 F 7 f 3 G 10 g 0 Questions 1. Is the location of crossing over random or does it occur more frequently in any particular location? a. The location of crossing over is random, but it occurs more often with the dice rolls 3 and 6, which represent alleles Cc and Gg respectively. 2. Which recessive allele most often remains on the same chromosome as "a"? a. Recessive allele b 3. Which recessive allele is most often separated from "a"? a. Recessive alleles g, f, e, and d; most often g. 4. Assume a crossover occurs at point 2. what would be the resulting order of alleles on each chromosome? a. ABcdefg, abCDEFG 5. How does crossing over cause genetic recombination? a. Crossing over is the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, so the chromosomes swap genes on the chromatids. 5 Sophie Chang StudySoup 2016 b. Homologous chromosomes cross over each other, and genes (pieces of the chromosome) are exchanged, which results in genetic recombination. Video -https://www.ted.com/talks/nina_jablonski_breaks_the_illusion_of_skin_color/transcript?language=en#t- 235000 1. What did Charles Darwin not think influenced the distribution of pigmentation from the equator to the poles? Climate 2. What is the importance of ultra violet radiation (UVR)? We were bombarded by high levels of ultraviolet radiation, including UVB radiation. Intensity of UVB radiation early in human life led to the evolution of human skin pigmentation. 3. What pigmentation did the genus Homo first have? Darkly, 2-1.5 million years ago 4. Why is UV B radiation important? It's very destructive, but also catalyzes the production of Vitamin D in the skin, which is a molecule that we need for strong bones, the health of our immune system, and other important functions in our bodies. 5. What does melanin do in regards to sunlight? Melanin is a natural sunscreen and protects the body against ultraviolet radiation. 6. How long has melanin been around? (in terms of earth's history) A billion years 7. Why did early humans who migrated into northern latitudes lose their pigmentation? Lost the potential for making Vitamin D in their skin for most of the year 8. What have epidemiologists and doctors not told many people about in terms of sunlight? Problem of darkly pigmented people living in high latitude areas, or working inside all the time. Vitamin D deficiency from a lack of UVB radiation is a major problem, and can cause health problems e.g. bones, gradual decay of immune systems, loss of immune function, problems with mood or health, and mental health. 9. What piece of evidence of evolution do we carry with us that is very easy to understand? Our skin Top Hat Questions 1. What does crossing over do? a. Creates new alleles b. Creates new combinations of alleles c. Creates new chromosomes d. Recombines alleles from non-homologous chromosomes 2. If an organism lives in an environment that is variable what type of reproduction will it likely use? What type of cell division will it use? a. Asexual; meiosis b. Asexual; mitosis c. Sexual; meiosis d. Sexual; mitosis 3. How could two normal parents have a child with fish odor syndrome? a. Both parents each had two normal alleles of FMO3. b. Both parents each had two mutant alleles of FMO3. c. One parent had two normal alleles and one parent had two mutant alleles of FMO3. d. Both parents had one normal and one mutant allele of FMO3. 4. What part to the scientific method did Mendel employ when selecting pea plants for his experiments? a. Observation 6 Sophie Chang StudySoup 2016 b. Hypothesis c. Prediction d. Conclusion 5. Only if a person has two defective versions of the FMO3 gene do they have a "fishy" odor. That person is… a. Heterozygous b. Homozygous recessive c. Homozygous dominant d. None of the above 6. The cross between a female white giraffe and a pigmented male resulted in white offspring. What is the genotype of the father? a. MM b. Mm c. mm d. Cannot be determined 7. Which of the following sets of parents could produce a colorblind daughter? TALK TO YOUR NEIGHBOR. a. XR, Y : XR, XR b. Xr, Y : XR, XR c. XR, Y : Xr, XR d. Xr, Y : Xr, XR i. Because rr is a possibility. 8. Look around the classroom. Which trait below is likely polygenic (many genes for one trait)? a. Hair color b. Length of neck c. Skin color d. Facial features e. All of the above 7
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