Japa 152, Week 5 Notes
Japa 152, Week 5 Notes JAPA 152
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynna Williams on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JAPA 152 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Megumu Burress in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Elementary Japanese II in Literature at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
DESCRIBING BODY PARTS When describing body parts, there is a special sentence structure that can be used. In the past, we might’ve said something like Yamashita san no kuchi wa chiisai desu (Mr. Yamashita’s mouth is small), but now we have a specific structure for this type of description: Person wa feature ga adjective desu. Using the same example, it would be structured like this: Yamashita san wa kuchi ga chiisai desu. (As for Mr. Yamashita, his mouth is small.) Here are some other examples: Yuki san wa kami ga nagai desu. (As for Yuki, her hair is long.) Tobio san wa me ga ookii desu. (As for Tobio, his eyes are big.) LINKING SENTENCES WITH ADJECTIVES Previously, to describe one noun with multiple adjectives, it was necessary to form more than one sentence. Now, however, we have learned a way to link the sentences together and describe a noun with multiple adjectives. This method is the use of the adjectives’ te forms. For i adjectives, the te form is constructed by dropping the i off the end of the adjective and replacing it with kute, much in the same way that the negative from of the adjective is constructed by dropping of the i and replacing it with kunai. Similarly, when forming the te form of a negative adjective, the i from the end of kunai is dropped and replaced with kute (to make the adjective’s ending kunakute). For na adjectives, constructing the te form is much simpler; you simply add de after the regular adjective. To use the te form of an adjective to form a sentencing joining two adjectives, simply conjugate the first adjective’s te form and follow with the second adjective in its regular form. Here are some examples: Okaa san wa kirei de yasashii desu. (My mother is beautiful and kind.) Daigaku wa furukute ookii desu. (The university is old and big.) Tokei wa takakunakute atarashii desu. (The watch is not expensive and new.) In addition, sentences can be constructed with both a positive and negative adjective used to describe the noun. In this case, both of the adjectives will be conjugated in their regular forms and followed by desu. The first adjective, however, will be followed by not only desu but also ga, acting as the conjunction “but.” Remember to use this form when one of the adjectives is positive and one is negative; as with English, it would not make sense to combine two positive adjectives with “but,” nor would it make sense to combine one positive and one negative adjective with “and.” Here are some examples: Kimura san wa yasashii desu ga, tsumaranai desu. (Kimura is nice, but boring.) Mari san wa shizuka desu ga, omoshiroi desu. (Mari is quiet, but funny.) GOING TO A DESTINATION TO DO AN ACTIVITY The last grammar point we learned this week is the use of two verbs in a sentence to indicate that someone went to a place to perform a specific activity. These sentences will follow this structure: Person wa destination ni/(h)e stem form of activity ni iku/kuru/kaeru. The stem form of a verb is constructed by dropping the masu off of the verb’s masu form. For ru verbs, this is easy, as a verb’s masu form is created only by dropping ru and adding masu. As this is true, the stem of ru verbs is simply the dictionary form without the ru. For u verbs, however, the masu form is constructed by changing the verb’s final syllable to the i vowel of that particular consonant, then adding masu. Therefore, the stem form of these verbs will simply be the dictionary form with the final syllable changed to the i vowel for its respective consonant. Here are some examples of verb stems: taberu -> tabe (eat) miru -> mi (see) asobu -> asobi (play; spend time pleasantly) oyogu -> oyogi (swim) To show how this works with the structure of doing an activity in a destination, here are some examples: Fumiko san wa suupaa ni yasai (w)o kai ni ikimasu. (Fumiko goes to the supermarket to buy vegetables.) Robaato san wa umi ni oyogi ni ikimashita. (Robert went to the sea to swim.) Mearii san wa shokudou ni hirugohan (w)o tabe ni ikimasu. (Mary goes to the cafeteria to eat lunch.)