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Chem 113 Week 4 Notes

by: Caroline Hurlbut

Chem 113 Week 4 Notes Chem 113

Caroline Hurlbut
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

There are less notes this week due to the first exam, but I have uploaded the last discussion of exam material, catalysts, and I have also modified and re-uploaded the reaction rates notes.
General Chemistry II
Ingrid Marie Laughman
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hurlbut on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 113 at Colorado State University taught by Ingrid Marie Laughman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 02/12/16
Catalysts • chlorofluorocarbons react with UV light to form chlorine radicals, which react with ozone (2O3—>3O2) —the chlorine atoms are the catalysts, which speed up the reaction and are recycled (used and then reproduced) —catalysts in the same phase as the reactants are homogeneous catalysts —catalysts in a different phase than the reactants are heterogeneous catalysts —catalysts don’t have to be a compound; sometimes one element can be added in the form of a compound to make a reaction happen • why doesn’t every spontaneous collision result in a reaction? —activation energy and geometry don't always work • how can we speed up a reaction? —add catalyst —increase temp (# molecules with kinetic energy>Ea increases) —increase concentration of reactants —change rate constant —mechanical process (ex. mixing) • these factors can shift a population/Boltzmann distribution to the right or left • the Arrhenius equation is k=Ae^(-Ea/RT) —A is the frequency factor, which determines how likely it is that two molecules will come together with the right geometry/collision Reaction Rates 2A + B—C (net reaction) • —A + A—>Q —Q + B—C —since 2A + B appears to be termolecular, the 2As must form an intermediate (Q) to make the reaction bimolecular • elementary reaction - reaction in which one or more reactants react directly to form products in a single reaction step and with a single transition state • elementary rate for reaction 1 (R1) = rate constant (k1) x concentration of reactants or (k1)(A^2) • elementary rate for reaction 2 (R2) = different rate constant (k2) x concentration of products or (k2)(Q)(B) • for a single elementary reaction, aA + bB—>products, rate=k[A]^a[B]^b —order of reaction: add up exponents (ex. a + b), 1=unimolecular, 2=bimolecular, etc. • rate-determining step - the full elementary reaction that proceeds slower than the other(s) and limits the rate of the overall reaction • ∆G=0 —R1: A + B—>Q —R2: Q + B—>C —rate1=kf[A][B], where kf=constant of forward reaction —rate2=kr[Q], where kr=constant of reverse reaction on an energy diagram, # of “humps” = # of transition states/activated complexes • • for a rate constant k: —the larger the rate constant, the faster the rate —rate unit is some unit of concentration over some unit of time (ex. M/s) —k can be calculated by Ae^(-Ea/RT), where Ea is activation energy, A is collision/geometry component, R is the gas constant, and T is temp (in K)


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