POLS 1100 POLS 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Miles on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1010 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Brad Lockerbie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see National Government in Political Science at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Political Science Notes 1.) Freedom of Religion a. Free Exercise b. Valid secular purpose c. Established congress could not establish a church d. Separationists vs. Accommodationists e. Birth Control/ Abortion 2.) Reconstruction a. Civil War Amendments 13th: Formal Emancipation 14th: Grants citizenship 15th: Guaranteed the right to vote 3.) Politics of Black Civil Rights a. Practical politics: African Americans now counted as full citizen in south, not as ⅗ b. South would gain 13 congressional seats over its prewar level Republicans worried about next national election Introduction of federal troops in the South c. 14th & 15th Amendment Due process Equal protection d. Rights lost: Failure of reconstruction Vigilante violence Commitment from northern republicans varied; passed laws, restricted enforcement 4.) Jim Crow Laws a. Jim Crow Laws Main focus was to take away the right to vote Institutionalized segregation b. Electoral laws to limit African Americans from voting Private organization = White primary Fee for voting, cumulative = Poll tax Literacy test: Discriminatory manner, was abolished for the Grandfather Clause Grandfather clause provided to protect poor and illiterate whites c. Plessy vs Ferguson (1896) Court case when Plessy was sitting in the white section of the bus and refused to move Separate but equal doctrine 5.) Civil Rights Coalition a. NAACP’s litigation strategy in search of looking for most sympathetic group Smith vs Allwright ● Had the white supremacy laws thrown out disenfranchised blacks Sweatt vs Painter (1950) ● Court unanimously agreed that the University of Texas could not stave off desegregation at its law school by instantly creating a blackonly faculty Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka (1954) ● Goal was to have separate but equal overturned ● Overturned the Plessy decision 6.) Civil Rights Act of 1957 a. The 1957 Civil Rights Act Lyndon B. Johnson (ran for presidency in 1960; one who had ambition democrats in favor of civil rights), vehicles into national politics Created a law that allowed African Americans to sue in federal court if their right to vote had been denied due to race Politically significant: Johnson’s Southern colleagues did not fight the law ● Johnson did not win the nomination but he became Kennedy’s vice presidential choice. (Later became President after Kennedy was assassinated) 7.) Civil Rights in 1960s a. Strategy shift from litigation to mass protest Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott Arranged sit ins Collective action brought the need for leadership ● Emergence of the Rev. Martin Luther King ○ Had the nonviolent strategy 8.) Civil Rights Act of 1964 a. Law authorized the national government to end segregation in: Public education Public accommodations No black section, no white section, one could not say “no blacks allowed” 9.) Voting Rights Act of 1965 a. Main provision authorized the Justice department to suspend restrictive electoral tests in Southern states that had a history of low black turnout Could send federal officers to register voters directly (Illegal to discriminate under election laws) States had to obtain clearance from the Justice department before changing their electoral law ● Told to revise …. Out of date (Mississippi registration rate increased 6%60%) The law achieved its goals quickly UNIT 5: 10.) Candidate Centered Congressional Campaigns a. Most democracies Political parties are competitors Focus on national issues, party programs, accomplishments b. Here in U.S Candidates are competitors Issues are determined by the competitors in the competitors in the district 11.) Institutional Framework a. Districts as opposed to national constituencies Singlemember House districts Dualmember Senate districts ● Separate elections, so like singlemember districts one winner per election Fixed timing ● 2 years for House, every seat up for election ● 2 years for Senate, ⅓ of seats up for election 12.) Who Runs? Formal requirements House (435 serve)......1911: size of house increases due to census, states gain/ lose representatives ● 25 years old ● U.S. citizen for 7 years ● Reside in the State ○ Live in stateno ○ Live in district yes Senate ● 30 years old … To serve, not to be elected ● Reside in the State 13.) Congressional Elections a. Apportionment/ Reapportionment Number of representatives per state ● 1790: 1 representative per 33,000 14.) Malapportionment (bad) a. U.S House Districts 1930: NY 766,425 90,671 1962: MI 802,994177,431 4:1 15.) Major court cases a. Baker vs. Carr (TN.1962) … within states = same size ….. Portion according to population One legislative chamber b. Reynolds vs. Simms (AL. 1964) Both state legislative chambers c. Wesberry vs. Sanders (GA. 1964) U.S. House districts within a state 16.) Rough guidelines for drawing circumstances a. State legislative chambers +/ 5% b. U.S. House districts within a state +/ 1% c. Voting Rights Act of 1965 Justice Department checks (old) 17.) Gerrymandering unconstitutional a. Drawing district lines for one advantages Typically partisan ….. party based b. Davis v. Bandemer (IN, 1986) Long lasting Egregious … really bad 18.) Voting in Congressional Elections a. Who wins? Incumbents …. Current officeholders win High for the entire century ● Getting bigger ● Winning by increased margins 19.) Growth of the incumbency advantage took off in the 1960s a. Explanations Redistricting? bad guess Recognition? TV, radio, stage interviews, benefits them and increase staff …. Bad explanation Casework (doing something for a particular person..ex. finding someone lost social security check) / pork parallel!(funding in your own district)
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