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POLS 1100

by: Courtney Miles

POLS 1100 POLS 1010

Courtney Miles
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One week of notes
National Government
Dr. Brad Lockerbie
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Miles on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1010 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Brad Lockerbie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see National Government in Political Science at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 02/12/16
Political Science Notes 1.) Freedom of Religion a. Free Exercise b. Valid secular purpose c. Established congress could not establish a church d. Separationists vs. Accommodationists e. Birth Control/ Abortion 2.) Reconstruction a.  Civil War Amendments ­ 13th: Formal Emancipation ­ 14th: Grants citizenship ­ 15th: Guaranteed the right to vote 3.) Politics of Black Civil Rights a. Practical politics: African Americans now counted as full citizen in south, not as ⅗ b. South would gain 13 congressional seats over its prewar level ­ Republicans worried about next national election ­ Introduction of federal troops in the South       c. 14th & 15th Amendment ­ Due process ­ Equal protection       d. Rights lost: Failure of reconstruction ­ Vigilante violence ­ Commitment from northern republicans varied; passed laws, restricted enforcement 4.) Jim Crow Laws a. Jim Crow Laws ­ Main focus was to take away the right to vote ­ Institutionalized segregation        b. Electoral laws to limit African Americans from voting ­ Private organization = White primary ­ Fee for voting, cumulative = Poll tax ­ Literacy test: Discriminatory manner, was abolished for the Grandfather Clause ­ Grandfather clause provided to protect poor and illiterate whites        c. Plessy vs Ferguson (1896) ­ Court case when Plessy was sitting in the white section of the bus and refused to move ­ Separate but equal doctrine 5.)  Civil Rights Coalition a. NAACP’s litigation strategy­ in search of looking for most sympathetic group ­ Smith vs Allwright  ● Had the white supremacy laws thrown out­ disenfranchised blacks ­ Sweatt vs Painter (1950) ● Court unanimously agreed that the University of Texas could not stave off desegregation at its  law school by instantly creating a black­only faculty ­ Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka (1954) ● Goal was to have separate but equal overturned  ● Overturned the Plessy decision 6.) Civil Rights Act of 1957 a. The 1957 Civil Rights Act ­ Lyndon B. Johnson (ran for presidency in 1960; one who had ambition democrats in favor of  civil rights), vehicles into national politics  ­ Created a law that allowed African Americans to sue in federal court if their right to vote had  been denied due to race ­ Politically significant: Johnson’s Southern colleagues did not fight the law ● Johnson did not win the nomination but he became Kennedy’s vice presidential choice. (Later  became President after Kennedy was assassinated) 7.) Civil Rights in 1960s a. Strategy shift from litigation to mass protest  ­ Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott  ­ Arranged sit ins ­ Collective action brought the need for leadership ● Emergence of the Rev. Martin Luther King ○ Had the non­violent strategy 8.) Civil Rights Act of 1964 a. Law authorized the national government to end segregation in: ­ Public education ­ Public accommodations ­ No black section, no white section, one could not say “no blacks allowed” 9.) Voting Rights Act of 1965 a. Main provision authorized the Justice department to suspend restrictive electoral tests in  Southern states that had a history of low black turnout ­ Could send federal officers to register voters directly (Illegal to discriminate under election laws) ­ States had to obtain clearance from the Justice department before changing their electoral law ● Told to revise …. Out of date (Mississippi registration rate increased 6%­60%) ­ The law achieved its goals quickly UNIT 5:  10.) Candidate Centered Congressional Campaigns a. Most democracies ­ Political parties are competitors ­ Focus on national issues, party programs, accomplishments      b. Here in U.S ­ Candidates are competitors  ­ Issues are determined by the competitors in the competitors in the district 11.) Institutional Framework a. Districts as opposed to national constituencies ­ Single­member House districts ­ Dual­member Senate districts ● Separate elections, so like single­member districts one winner per election ­ Fixed timing ● 2 years for House, every seat up for election ● 2 years for Senate, ⅓  of seats up for election 12.) Who Runs? Formal requirements ­ House (435 serve)......1911: size of house increases due to census, states gain/ lose  representatives ● 25 years old ● U.S. citizen for 7 years ● Reside in the State ○ Live in state­no ○ Live in district­ yes ­ Senate ● 30 years old … To serve, not to be elected ● Reside in the State 13.) Congressional Elections a. Apportionment/ Reapportionment ­ Number of representatives per state ● 1790: 1 representative per 33,000 14.) Malapportionment (bad)  a. U.S House Districts ­ 1930: NY 766,425­ 90,671 ­ 1962: MI 802,994­177,431 4:1 15.) Major court cases a. Baker vs. Carr (TN.1962) … within states = same size ….. Portion according to population ­ One legislative chamber        b. Reynolds vs. Simms (AL. 1964) ­ Both state legislative chambers      c. Wesberry vs. Sanders (GA. 1964) ­ U.S. House districts within a state 16.) Rough guidelines for drawing circumstances a. State legislative chambers ­ +/­ 5%       b. U.S. House districts within a state ­ +/­ 1%       c. Voting Rights Act of 1965 ­ Justice Department checks (old) 17.) Gerrymandering­ unconstitutional a. Drawing district lines for one advantages ­ Typically partisan ….. party based       b. Davis v. Bandemer (IN, 1986) ­ Long lasting ­ Egregious … really bad 18.) Voting in Congressional Elections a. Who wins? ­ Incumbents …. Current officeholders win ­ High for the entire century ● Getting bigger ● Winning by increased margins 19.) Growth of the incumbency advantage took off in the 1960s a. Explanations ­ Redistricting? bad guess ­ Recognition? TV, radio, stage interviews, benefits them and increase staff …. Bad explanation  ­ Casework (doing something for a particular person..ex. finding someone lost social security  check) / pork parallel!(funding in your own district) 


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