Ch 5, 6 and 7 Notes
Ch 5, 6 and 7 Notes SPCE 636
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carmen Thomas on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPCE 636 at Ball State University taught by Maria Knox in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Research in special education in Special Education at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Carmen Thomas SPCE 636 Chapter 5: Selecting a Sample Sample Group of individuals, events or objects Represents character of larger group from which it was pulled In Quantitative Research Sample should be generalizable Typically not focused on an entire population Sample must be selected appropriately- defining target population, accessible/available population Sample represents population it is from Probability Sampling- allows researcher to point out chance that each participant will be selected/chosen Simple Random Sampling- All population individuals have equal right to be selected; out of researcher's control; randomly select participants; best for representative sample; allows inferences based on behavior; best for statistical analysis. Define population, determine sample size needed, identify members and select participants. Descriptive or correlation studies. Stratified Sampling- identify who represents groups within sample. Can include more than one variable. Equal size- Define population, determine sample size needed, identify subgroups/variables, classify members into groups, randomly assign members Cluster Sampling- randomly select groups rather than individuals; best when don't have list of all members; best for educational researchers. Steps- define population, sample size, determine clusters, list all clusters, determine how many participants per cluster, randomly assign individuals to clusters, note all individuals in all clusters. DO NOT use single cluster randomly- select group of participants not just one for generalization purposes Systematic Sampling- every so many individuals in population is selected, such as every 5th. Divide number in population by desired number for sample. NOTE- all individuals do not have equal chance for selection. Randomly order. Steps- define population, sample size, get list of participants, determine individuals, random selection, take every number from list. Must ask "How large should sample be". Apply guidelines to determine sample size Avoid sampling error beyond control of researcher and sampling bias that is fault of researcher Non-probability sampling- selecting technique that doesn't allow every participant an opportunity/chance to be selected Convenience sampling- based on availability of participants, accidental sampling. Not random. Purposive Sampling- selecting sample based on experience with group. Not random Quota Sampling- selecting sample with required traits. Not random In Quantitative Research Carmen Thomas SPCE 636 In Qualitative Research Selecting individuals who could be good key representatives and informants, collaborators, co-researchers, who can contribute to research Individuals selected are thoughtful, reflective, comfortable and can communicate well Samples are smaller than in quantitative studies, spread over longer period of time and require more detailed data collection. More interaction between researchers and participants selected Variety of people and context Intent- describe specific context in great detail rather than to generalize to population Selects participants who can contribute/add greater phenomenon Rarely uses random selection, participants have experience/insight Lots of time to get information to select participants who are informative Can select a few new participants to see if they provide same information Researchers meet with each possible participant to build relationship and determine if they meet qualifications to participate No "correct" or "appropriate" number of participants per study, can have up to 60, but more than 20 is rare Data saturation- when researcher concludes they have enough participants with similar contributions Carmen Thomas SPCE 636 Chapter 6: Selecting Measuring Instruments Constructs Data- information you collect to analyze/observe Decide what type of data you want to collect Construct- thought; cannot be observed directly, explains behavior Variables Variables can be any range of values, at least two values/scores Example- age, gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status Instrument- used to measure variables Can be dependent/independent, quantitative/categorical, vary Measurement scales organize data for analyzing Nominal variables- categorical variable, 2 or more categories of variables. Represents different qualities- race, gender, hair color Ordinal variables- classifies and ranks person, ranks highest to lowest, describes performance but doesn't compare Interval variables- rankings and represents equal intervals. Achievement and aptitude test Ratio Variable- equal intervals in rank order, true zero point such as height, weight, distance, time Independent variables- should have at least two levels of treatments, type of reinforcement Collecting research data- standardized instrument, self-developed instrument, natural data Qualitative studies use natural, existing data, standardized instrument Standardized test- administered and scored in same manner over and over Assessment collects and interprets data Measurement scores performance on assessment instrument Performance assessment looks at student progress Raw score is from assessments, focus on individual answers Norm referenced scoring compares individual performance with group Criterion referenced scoring individual compared to predetermined Self referenced score approach assesses individual performance over time using same measurement tool Measuring instruments- cognitive test, achievement test, aptitude test, affective test, attitude test Criteria for Measurement Instruments Validity Reliability Carmen Thomas SPCE 636 Stability Equivalence Tests are not always valid Carmen Thomas SPCE 636 Chapter 7: Survey Research Survey Research Look for progress Write what comes to mind Develop outline- identify/order major topics First draft- many revisions, ask for peer reviews Reflect what has been done/found in previous research Clear, simple style APA format Title page with purpose, acknowledgements of past research, table of contents outlines report, tables/figures, abstract/summary of study, main body introduction, data collection/description, results, conclusions, implications, reccommendations, discussion In journals- let data speak for itself, use your voice, keep reader's attention, be engaging, assemble as tight as possible, include cover letter and manuscript for journal Carmen Thomas SPCE 636
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