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BI102 - Week 4

by: Markhame

BI102 - Week 4 BI 102

GPA 3.45

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About this Document

Contents: Stem Cells Genetic Screening Gene Therapy Eugenics
General Biology - Genetics
Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery
Class Notes
Biology, OSU, Oregon State, Oregon State University, bio101, Bio102, biology 102, Genetics, Lesley Blair, Mark Lavery, Blair, Science
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Markhame on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BI 102 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Biology - Genetics in Biology at Oregon State University.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Bio102 ‐ Week 4  Friday, February 12, 2016  2:12 PM  Week 4   Genetic Medicine  { Using genetic technologies to address disorders }    Stem Cells  Undifferentiated → These cells are not bookmarked yet to form different parts of the body  Gives incredible potential for using them to make brain, heart, etc  What has stem cells?  → Embryo ‐ pluripotent (can become any different kind of cell in the body)  → Newborns (umbilicle cord blood) ‐ multipotent  → Adults (wisdom teeth) ‐ multipotent (Can become some things, but not anything)  Bone marrow stem cells can be injected into other bones or sometimes into the heart    Research goal: Convert multipotent cells to pluripotent cells.  → In order to be able to use your own cells to repair organs  → ex: extract stem cells from the wisdom tooth and inject into the heart after a heart attack.  Genetic Screening  Gel Electrophoresis → separate DNA fragments (Chromosomes) by size; tells about your genetic makeup  Injected into a gel and they travel in pieces, separating into fragments  Unique DNA fingerprints  Used to analyze tissue samples, etc.   No one else in the world has fragments cut the same way as another person  Except identical twins  Can tell fragment length and sequence your DNA (the order of your bases)    → Zika: using Gel Electrophoresis to determine A) if it's in you and B) if it’s a different strain from the African Zika Virus.        DETERMINING GENETIC MAKE‐UP: SCREENING    Prenatal → amniocentesis (needle used to extract sample from fetus)  Chorionic Villi sampling  Commonly screened: Karyotype   Used to find point mutations and genetic disorders.  Very few can be treated in the fetus    Newborn → used to screen for diseases and genetic disorders    Adult → becoming more common (you pay/insurance pays to find diseases)  For some reason people are doing this for fun??  Tissue sample analyzed, you receive a print‐out about your entire genetic makeup.  Also disease‐causing alleles  Fed. Government stepped in and told the companies that screened "Don't send out all the information"  People were panicking     Embryo → most controversial   When produce embryos during in vitro fertilization → can be screened for choice of offspring genetics  Phenotype choices by the parents (sex, eye/hair color, height, etc)  Also for diseases  Serious Ethical controversy about this (Gattaca ‐ 1997)        Gene Therapy  → Using genes to prevent or treat diseases (original idea)  Replacing dysfunctional alleles with functional ones to cure/treat the disease    →Viruses ‐ insert their genetic material into your cells in order to reproduce  Takes over the process of protein synthesis machinery to make more viruses  IDEA: what if you could take over the virus and remove the deadly genetic information, then inserted an allele that Is actually needed  Have the virus infect the person, but replace the dangerous material in the virus with healing material  Problem: your body doesn't know that its not dangerous anymore, so it attacks the virus anyways. Hence ‐ lots of idea failures and limited successes.      Example of success: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)    Children born with shitty immune systems ‐ cannot defend against bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc.   They get put in containment and likely don't even live very long  Think: The Boy in the Plastic Bubble  Bone marrow stem cells are extracted, "infected" with functioning allele (proteins needed to defend the body) and reinserted.   Cures disease ‐ but it's highly unlikely to actually work most of the time  50+ survivors now; as opposed to a 100% death rate with SCID untreated      → Child/Adult Gene Therapy = Somatic Cell Gene Therapy  Fixing cells within the body (fix/change alleles)    → Germline Gene Therapy ‐ embryos (lineage)  Removing alleles, injecting alleles, etc  Currently illegal and off‐limits  England is currently deciding whether to allow gene editing for human embryos (The Francis Crick Institute asked permission to edit embryos; but not to insert into women)  Culture may not be ready for this yet, so caution    → Who tends the gene pool? (Who makes the decisions about what goes in and what comes out of the embryos?)  Parents are biased ‐ they're not just choosing for health, they're usually choosing preferable traits  ETHICS  Eugenics  → Eugenics movement (beginning of the last century) ‐ "Improve genetic quality of human population" (creeeeepyyy)  People are making pedigrees  For diseases   People are generally interested in genetics  → Eugenics appear at state fairs  People gather and "scientists" tell them if they're genetically correct/preferable or not based entirely on phenotype  Super racist and anti‐immigrant  Spreading idea that the immigrants were stupid for not speaking English  Claiming that immigrants were ugly and should not be "breeding"  Sterilizations in 1927 ‐ upheld by supreme court  For disorders and diseases (epileptic, etc)  Hitler and Nazi Germany take this movement and use it as a rationale to "purify" the world  "Get rid of individuals because they're genetically inferior"  But of course, this didn't stop sterilizations because we're fucking dumb  Sterilizations stopped by the civil rights movement  "Cannot discriminate genetically!" 


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