PSY 1010 Prenatal Development
PSY 1010 Prenatal Development PSY 1010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Belson on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Amy Kohl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Prenatal development Thursday, February 11, 2016 6:01 PM Nature vs Nurture A. Big debate in psychology B. Nature refers to a given trait/behavioras being genetic or biological C. Nurture refers to a given trait/behavioras being due to environmentalinfluences, such as how an individual is raised D. Most things are a mix of nature and nurture Chromosomes: Thread like structures in the nucleus of a cell that contains genetic material *human egg and sperm cells contain 23 chromosomes Autosomes: first 22 pair of chromosomes Sex chromosomes: the 23rd pair of chromosomesthat determine sex of child XX-girl XY-boy Each chromosomecontains one strand of DNA Men determine sex of child. Mothersonly have X chromosomes Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): Molecule composedof 4 nucleotide bases that is the biochemicalbasis of heredity A. Blueprint of development B. Different combinations of bases make different genes Genes: unit of heredity comprised of DNA Genotype: The set of genes someonecarries in their DNA (Recipe) Phenotype: observable features..physical, psychological, and behavior (what happens, end result) Twins A. Monozygotic twins: identical, come from a single fertilized egg that splits into two B. Dizygotictwins: fraternal twins, come from two separate eggs fertilized by two separate sperm Allele: one of a number of alternative forms of a gene A. Homozygous: the alleles in the pair of chromosomesare the same (AA) B. Heterozygous:the alleles in the pair of chromosomesare different (Aa) C. Dominant: trait that is followed D. Recessive:trait that is ignored Incomplete dominance: something in between happens. Not either dominant or recessive A. Sickle cell disease: blood disorder in which red blood cells take on a rigid sickle shape a. Cannot carry enough oxygen b. Many health complication c. Results from carrying two copies of mutated, recessivehemoglobin gene B. Sickle cell trait: condition where an individual has 1 copy mutated, recessivehemoglobin gene, and does not exhibit sever symptomsof disease a. Have minor complications b. Confers an evolutionaryadvantage in places where malaria is common Other Genetic Disorders A. Inherited a. Usually by 2 recessives b. Phenylketonuria (PKU) i. Babies born lacking an enzyme that breaks down the protein phenylalanine. The result i. Babies born lacking an enzyme that breaks down the protein phenylalanine. The result is the build of phenylalanine in the body that leads to mental retardation Behavioral genetics: branch that deals with inheritance of behavioral and psychological traits A. Polygenic inheritance: a pattern in which the combined activityof separate genes creates the phenotype Genes and Behavior A. Reaction Range: The same genotype can produce a range of phenotypes, in reaction to the context of development B. Heredity and environmenthave a dynamic interaction through development C. Niche-picking:deliberately seeking environmentsthat fits one's genetic D. Epigenetics:the environmentcan alter gene expression E. Contextual influences make children from the same family different. Weeks 1-2, zygote The period of the zygote beings with fertilization, and ends when the zygote implants into the uterine wall. LOOK AT SLIDES FOR PICTURE Embryo: term given to zygote once it is implanted into the uterine wall Weeks 3-8 Body structures and internal organs begin to develop Three layers begin to from in the embryo: Ectoderm (outer layer)-becomeshair, outer layer of skin, nervous system Mesoderm-forms muscles, bones, and circulatorysystem. Endoderm (inner layer)- forms digestive system and lungs Weeks 9-38 Begins when cartilage turns into bone, and ends at birth Characterized by rapid growth Bodily systemsbegin to work Age of Viability (between 22-28weeks)- most systemsfunction well enough so that a fetus born at this age should survive During first 3 months, hormonescauses penis growth in males, absence of the hormonecauses female genitalia to form 5-6 months:eyebrows,eyelashes, scalp, hair, skin thickens Lots of brain growth, especially cerebral cortex Pretermrisks Nutrition: A. Need to consume 10-20%more calories B. Balanced diet is important a. Spina bifida: embryo's neural tube does not close properly during the first month of pregnancy, resulting in damage to the spinal cord and nervous system i. Caused by folic acid b. Poor maternal nutrition i. The baby is more likely to be born prematurely and to be underweight ii. Baby is more likely to be vulnerable to illness ii. Baby is more likely to be vulnerable to illness Stress: a person physical and psychologicalresponses to threatening or challenging situations A. Studies of maternal stress in human must rely solely on correlation studies a. Mothers with higher anxiety more often give birth to premature or underweight babies b. Indirect effect of stress, mothers are more likely to smokeor drink c. Mothers immune system is also decreased Mothers age A. Teenage women are more likely to have problems during pregnancy, labor, and delivery a. Could be due to lack of prenatal care B. Older women have moredifficulty getting pregnant and are less likely to have successful pregnancies Teratogens: agents that causes abnormal prenatal development A. Drugs, disease, environment B. Alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, caffeine, aspirin, C. AIDS and other diseases D. Lead, mercury, PCBs, X-rays Bisphenol A (BPA) A. Chemical found in plastics, food and beverage cans, thermal paper, cds, dvds B. Endocrine disrupter, estrogen agonist. C. Prenatal exposure leads to urogenital malformations,problems with reproductivefunction, increased cancer risk in females Influences of teratogens depend on the genotype of the organism A. Might harm some but not others Changes over the course of development A. Have different effects on the fetus at different stages of development Each teratogen affects a specific aspect or aspects of prenatal development The impact depends on dosage Damage is not always evident at birth but may appear later in life Dads? Alcohol consumption, smoking, drug use have all been shown to damage sperm and lead to increases in miscarriages and birth defects Genetic counseling A. Counselor asks about family medical history and constructs a family tree to see the odds of passing a disorder Prenatal diagnosis A. Ultrasound B. Amniocentesis:a needle is inserted through the mother's abdomen to obtain a sample of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus C. Chorionic villus sampling: a sample of tissue is obtained from part of the placenta D. Genetic testing E. Fetal medicine: concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth a. Administering drugs or hormonesto the fetus b. Fetal surgery c. Genetic engineering, in which defective genes are replaced by synthetic normal genes Labor and Delivery Stage 1 A. 12-24 hours B. Uterus contracts C. Cervix enlarges to approximately10 cm C. Cervix enlarges to approximately10 cm Stage 2 A. Baby passes through cervix, and vagina B. Crowning C. Baby is delivered within an hour Stage 3 A. Push a few more time to get rid of placenta Birth complications Cephalovpelvic disproportion- head is larger than pelvis, impossible for the baby to pass Irregularposition- not head first Preeclampsia-high blood pressure, protein in urine, and swelling in her extremities(due to fluid retention) Prolapsed umbilical cord- cord comesout first, and is squeezed shut, meaning no oxygen to baby Hypoxia: flow of blood in umbilical cord is disrupted Premature: baby born before 36th week Low birth weight, very low BW, and extremelylow BW Fetal heart rate is monitoredduring labor Cesarean section:incision is made in the mothersabdomen to removebaby from uterus Infant mortality is high in US
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