This is the history notes for week 2
This is the history notes for week 2 History 146
Popular in History of the United States after the Civil War
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Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 146 at Towson University taught by L. Mims in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History of the United States after the Civil War in History at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Chapter 17 Schultz Industrial Revolution (1865-1915) o The transition of how goods were made and sold o Transition from human/animal power to mechanical power o Raw resources to manufactured materials There were 3 waves of reformers o 1. The Labor Movement The most radical Focused on the working class Questioned Americas commitment to capitalism and democracy o 2. The Populists o 3. The Progressives Social Changes o 1. Farming to factories and retail Increased city growth o 2. Less family business more corporations Central Industries o Railroad Spanned the majority of the nation Made the movement of goods easy, cheap, and reliable Big 4 Captains of the railroad industry Controlled most of the western railroads They sometimes cut prices below their own costs o Steel Made railroads possible Sir Henry Bessemer invented a way to convert large quantities of iron to steel using hot air Mass production took off with Andrew Carnegie in 1872 He used cheap labor Used Vertical integration o A system where a business controls all aspects of its industry from raw material to finished product to ensure they do not have to share profits Allowed for sky scrapers to be built Allowed the elevator to be built o Petroleum Machine lubricant Benjamin Silliman discovered that kerosene (by product of raw petroleum) could be used as an illuminant Rockefeller Used Horizontal integration o Worked with or took over other companies to control competition, decrease the cost, and increase profits His Standard Oil company controlled 90% of all petroleum in the country . Inventions o Thomas Edison Invented the light bulb Led to the creation of electric plants Invented the motion picture camera Phonograph Microphones o Alexander Graham Bell The telephone Enabled the flow of communication to speed up enabling businesses o Elisha Otis The mechanized elevator o The typed writer Created office jobs open to women Innovative financing o Businesses were allowed to merge o Sell stock o Corporations increased in number o Businesses were funded by government programs o The establishment of the management hierarchy This allowed corporations to spread across the nation Created a class of managers that would figure prominently into the middle class ( 297) Pages 297 to 300 The National Market: Creating Consumer Demand o Replaceable parts and the railroad system made goods more available to American citizens o Advertising changed to large articles in newspapers and catalogues Helped create a consumer culture o Large chain stores had the advantage of being able to lower their wholesale prices (BJ’s) o Frank W. Woolworth devised another type of chain passed of the idea of selling inexpensive goods at cheap prices “Nickel and dime stores” ( Dollar Store) o Aaron Montgomery Ward set up a mail order business o Many businessmen did harmful practices to ensure they controlled all the competition o Environmental Damages Drilling for petroleum damaged the soil Mechanized mining harmed the land Burning coal gave off damaging gases Railroads cut through typically untouched lands o Top environmental preservationist John Muir the founder of the American Environmental Organization, Sierra Club, and influenced the preservation of the mountain lands between California and Montana o Working conditions Increased hours Dangerous conditions Child labor Basic needs typically ignored o Triangle Shirtwaist Company A New York City garment factory that burned down in 1911 Changed working conditions because the fire escape door had been bolted shut to prevent female workers from taking breaks Women jumped out windows to avoid the flames o Sweatshop Crowded factory in an urban setting where workers typically are exploited o Devotion to the needs of business It permitted a decline in attention to the treatment of African Americans It harmed the image of politicians, painting them as blatant and corrupt. Social Darwinism o The theory that natural selection has extended to the business realm o Tycoons believed themselves to be justified in their overbearing behavior because they had shown themselves to be the most successful competitors Credit Mobilier Company o A contruction company set up by the directors of the Union Pacific to build their transcontinental railroad Tweed Ring o Friends and cronies of New York’s corrupt “boss” William M Tweed Tammany Hall o A political organization in which members regarded politics as an opportunity to get rich o This although being incredibly corrupt appealed to immigrants specifically o “Bosses” established loyalty by watching over neighborhoods and taking care of short-term emergencies Ex. If a family’s home burned down and they were made homeless a boss may go to the scene, find them a temporary home, and give them financial support for immediate necessities, then ensure they get back on their feet This was not particularly out of care or respective for the family or individuals they assisted but more about assuring the politicians or bosses would have voters. Chapter 18 Tenements o Crowded slum houses in urban areas that housed immigrants The populist movement? The labor movement? Gild: To provide a thin coat of gold over a much cheaper metal, used as a description of the industrial age of American history Coney Island o Public amusement park opened in NY featuring roller coasters, water slides, and fun houses(1895) Middle class citizens used railroads to get to work so they could move to the suburbs and out of the cities. Further changes in wealth National League o The first professional baseball league begun in the year 1876 with 8 teams American League o The second professional baseball league begun in the year 1901 World Series o Baseball competition between the National League and American League Greenhorns o European immigrants to America o Awkward uncultivated behaviors o They typically came with very little education, work skills, and knowledge of English o They ended up as the bottom rung of the industrial hierarchy Ellis Island o The immigrant gateway to NYC from 1892-1954 The New South o Economic relations with the North were encouraged including loans o Specific Components The creation of an industrialized south The quick creation of a racial caste system o Their industries Railroads Let to the industrial expansion Attracted wealthy northern investment Iron Expanded due to the railroads Cotton and Textiles Abundance of cheap labor Typical fourteen hour day Wide availability of cotton Tobacco Invention of the automatic cigarette roller Industrial failures Steel out grew iron production African Americans were still unable to be employed in industrial employment The second Mississippi Plan o Plans designed to prevent African Americans from voting including the poll tax, literacy tests, and property qualifications Jim Crow Laws o Laws that mandated racial segregation in public facilities Louisiana Separate Car act o Law that stated that blacks and whites had to ride in separate train cars o Plessey vs. Fergusson Claimed that segregation was constitutional as long as the accommodations are separate but equal Hierarchy of races o A theory that some racial groups were more superior than others o Used “Scientific” evidence to support that white people of British descent were at the top of the hierarchy. Atlanta Compromise o A speech by Booker T Washington in 1895, it encouraged black economic development, and calming the fears of racial intermingling, as he said blacks and whites should remain separate but work together. Niagara Movement o An attempted political organization that said blacks should fight for their rights rather than accept abuse and separation (W.E.B Du Bois) Juneteenth o The date and celebration of the day slaves were freed in Texas Tuskegee Institute o A college for African Americans in Alabama Homestead Act o An act that 160 acres of land to settlers who occupied the land for five years Sodbusters o American pioneers who settled in the Great Plains Bonanza Farms o Giant farms in the Great Plains covering thousands of acres Dawes General Allotment Act o Federal Law decided that lands held by native American tribes would be divided among families and that after 25 years and only after Native Americans could receive the titles to their land and become official citizens “Ghost Dance” o A ritual for the Plains Indians o Lasted 5 days and was believed to raise them above the ground while the land below them was replaced with new land Wounded Knee Massacre o A conflict between the U.S Army and the Sioux that left 39 U.S soldiers dead and 146 Sioux dead Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 o An act that banned the immigration of Chinese laborers for ten years and kept current Chinese Americans from becoming citizens. Populist party o Advocates for agricultural workers Gold Standard o An economic plan using gold as the primary form of currency and taking paper money and silver out of circulation Munn v. Illinois o A Supreme Court case that declared states could regulate businesses’ within their borders if they operated on public interest. Sub treasury Plan o An economic plan created by the Farmers Alliance that said crops would be stored in government-owned warehouses and used as collateral for low-cost government loans to struggling farmers Remonetize o To turn something back into an acceptable currency Lecture Why are HBU’s (Historically Black Universities) popping up during reconstruction? o The freedmen’s Bureau o The freedom to learn After the freedmen’s Bureau falls apart who picks up the support of Black Education? o The black churches The talented tenth o W.E.B. Du Bois and others that lead the educational movement and are considered the educated elite What is gained or lost during urbanization and industrialization? o Lost Individuality A loss of personalization Workers have become disposable o Gain Free time Mass production Key features of industrialization o Mechanization o Interchangeability o Standardization o Wage labor o Time discipline o The factory o Mass production o
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