ANT 347 Week 3
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nia Gibson on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 349 at Syracuse University taught by C. DeCorse in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
ANT 349 Notes First Exam Review for test Multiple Choice, Matching, Short Essays What is meant by the term ‘archeological context’ Why is it important in archaeological dating and interpretation? One Million Years b.c. Obvious Problems Strange Mix: • Humans • Dinosaurs • Other Creatures Technology and Subsistence Mix of time periods Agriculture c.10,000 BP Rock Art, Clothing c.40,000 BP Spears and Flaked Tools c. 400,000 1.5 million BP Biggest Problem: Human Origins Discoveries of the 1940s60s • South African Caves • Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Dated finds: • Multiple Fossil species 12 million BP No modern humans hominin a term we use to refer to humans and our immediate ancestors The Primates Modern humans 200,000 years BP Distant human Ancestors 10 million years ago (hominin) Taxonomy and Classification Groups divided into smaller and smaller categories Carolus Linnaeus (17071778) Based on: • Shared physical similarities • Genetic relatedness Classification Relevant to Human ancestry • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Suborder • Superfamily • Family • Genus • Species • Anamalia • Chordata • Mammal • Primates • Anthropoids • Hominoid • Hominid • Homo • sapiens Physical Characteristics • Generalized skeleton (clavicle) • Keen vision (stereoscopic) • Dexterous hands (Opposable thumb) • Comparatively Large Brain Primate Behavior • Extend Infant dependency Social Groups: • Grooming • Learning • Interaction Order Primates • Living and Fossil primates share characteristics Fossil species unlike living primate species PlioPleistocene Human origins Evolution of Genus Homo from small brained bipedal ape. Genus Homo • Increasing cranial capacity within genus homo Strange Relatives and Distant Cousins • Other bipedal apples coexisted with early human ancestors Evolutionary Dead Ends • Robust Australopithecines • 13 milion BP Other PlioPleistocene Hominoids: African, Europe, and Asia Gigantopithecus: Late MiocenePliocene sites 101 million years ago Dragon Bones sited in India, Pakistan, China, Vietnam Gigantopithecus: 150300 kilograms (330660 lbs) Gigantopithecus: Massive size suggests a terrestrial life Teeth: Large and Flat: Possible bamboo diet Phytoliths suggest more divers food PlioPleistocene Hominoid Survivors? Could the robust australopithecine or gigantopithecus have survived? King Kong (1933): Primitive Survivor A classic, but implausible Possible Survivors: Extinction more characteristic of fossil record than survival But many examples of socalled ‘Living Fossils’ “Living Fossils” Stationary Species: Species from earlier ages that are represented largely unchanged in living populations. What are some Living Fossils: • Spiders • Reptiles • Amphibians • Various species shell fish Lone Survivors: • Silurian/Devonian (400 million Years ago) Other Silurian/Devonian Survivors • Chambers nautilus • Coelacanth Why did these species survive? Natural Selection: Certain members of a species have characteristics that give them increased chances of survival. This leads to Reproductive Success. Adaptive Advantage Successful in environment niche or range of niches: Organism not acted on by natural selection, so remains the same. Unknown Animals??? Baron Georges Cuvier’s Rash Dictum European explorers had reached every corner of the globe Georges Cuvier: Proved Wrong in 4 years and numerous times since Lowland gorillas and chimps discovered in the 19th century Mountain gorillas existence established in 1901 New mammals: Marsupial mouse from Australia; Are there unknown primates to be discovered? What does Dangling mean by ‘A Natural History of Bigfoot’ Bigfoot and Sasquatch: Biologically Ecologically Evolutionarily ALL POSSIBLE BUT DO THEY EXIST? Sasquatch Native American term for Bigfoot from British Columbia, Canada Many different native names and legends North America BIGFOOT Big Foot named: 1958 Construction crew in Fluff Creek, northern California Scattered tools; plaster casts footprints Many “Big Feet” • Idaho • Arkansa • Wildman or Dogman of Michigan • Connecticut Widman Florida skunk apre Everglades National park New York BIGFOOT First report in Ellisburgh, NYS; 1818 Slighted by a “gentleman of unquestionable veracity” saw “an animal resembling the Wild Man of the Woods. Amazon and Orinoco River basins Francois de Loys Swiss Geologist 19171920 Expedition Large, no tail, small thumbs, large genitals Almost man or ‘almas’ Caucasus Mountains former Soviet Republics • Human side • unable to speak • do not grow food • no special powers Orang Pendik Sumatra (Indonesia) Not any of the gibbons, or orangutan 2.55ft high Abominable Snowman Himalayas Mt.Everest Late 19th century Accounts of footprints MetohKangmr Azu te rare scies of the bear Thelma Gibbon Mh The or Yeh The (Yeti) manbeast or rockdweller Actually Southern serow (goat) The Social History of Big Foot How people discover distribute and interpret evidence Giant Apes in Pop Culture King Kong 1933 Had many Imitations The abominable snowman • Nigel Kneale screen play • Expedition that would find something • planning of expedition • scientific study: possible food • The possible fate of a oliopleistocene hominid survivor?
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