Week 5 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
February 9, 2016 Questions: Identify the main argument in Elaine Tyler May: o The nuclear family was a sort of epidemic that seriously affected both men and women. The pressures on both parents was enormous, but women seemed to face the brunt of the misery while still maintaining, in their general summarization, that they would marry the same person and that their lives had been happy on the whole. They were also put blame for things on themselves. Analyze the connection between cold war ideology and the American family o Containment, compartmentalization, specific roles. Analyze the connection between cold war ideology and the role of women in U.S. society. Reviews of Homeward Bound o Conformity: caused my McCarthyism, consumerism, and suburbanize. o Religion: opposing the “godless” Soviet Union Adapted into a consumerist society Religion offered a sense of community 1958—church attendance peaks at 49% o Marriage: early marriage endorsed by experts and parents, ideal of a large family, low rates of divorce o Baby boom: after decades of decline, birthrates rose again, Cult of domesticity Childcare is central to family life Increasing professionalization of childcare advice o Gender roles: distinction between sexes “Based on nature” that should always be upheld o Consumerism and gender Consumer society underscored the difference between the genders Standards of beauty highlighted physiological differences between men and women o Youth culture o Consumer society began catering to children The number of Baby Boomer youths made them a force in American society and economic purchasing power Result was the development of a youth culture separate from the world of adults o Nonconformity Condemns people who deviate from societal norms Feminism is a neurological illness “Crisis of masculinity”—men surrounded by females become feminine o Homosexuality Massive mobilization of world war II creates a rich homosexual culture Psychiatrists had an increasing US bureaucracy redefine homosexuality Shift from criminalizing homosexual acts to criminalize homosexual people February 11, 2016 Midterm 5 essay questions Thesis and argument 80 minutes Analyze Article: Analyze the assumptions which the article makes about U.S. consumerism and the rest of the world o They look down on the Soviet society because they aren’t materialistic or consumeristic o They degrade Soviet women as lesser women because they work, don’t wear clothes for fashion or put effort into their appearance. “…she is, after all, a woman. She would like to be pretty and have men pay her compliments.” o They talk about the soviet attitude towards consumerism as if it’s A. completely foreign; B. completely goes against human nature, and C. disgusting and in need of change. A “Market Empire” th In the 20 century, the United States was not only a political and military hegemon, but also owned a market empire. o Derived its impetus and instruments from the same revolution in mass consumerism that was reshaping the lives of its own citizens o Focused on Europe (Voice of America (radio show for people under German occupation in Europe), Marshall Plan) o Hard power (power with the use of military/force) vs. soft power (power that didn’t require military power) US vs. European Consumerism o For the United States to establish its legitimacy in consumerism, it had to confront the cultural authority that the European region had accumulated o Focus on overturning Europe’s bourgeois civilization Quantity (U.S.) over Quality (Europe) US government programs o Information dissemination: Fulbright Program, 1946 Cultural exchange program created through the “recycling” of US war materials left across the world. Those countries that still have the war materials can keep it if they agree to engage in the Fulbright program with the US. United States Information Agency, 1953 Cultural clearinghouse, US propaganda tool. Creates radio programs, books, programs, etc. detailing the superiority of American life. CIA Covert Operations, 1947 Congress for Cultural Freedom, 1950 o Goodwill tours: o The US government sent musicians around the world to perform, in order to build “friendships” and positive relationships between culture US Jazz Musician Tours o Jazz musicians served to promote American culture while also presenting to the world a more appealing image of American race relations o Cultural diplomacy in areas of the world where officials felt the US needed to generate some additional good will (Middle East, Africa, Soviet Union, Southeast Asia). Foundations o Distinction between the state and private foundations often blurry o Often used in coordination with US intelligence agencies o Established the field of American studies in Europe Promoted a sympathetic understanding of American culture and political aims Mass Culture o People worldwide consumed and imitated US goods o The success of American mass culture had much to do with the economics of the domestic American industry and entertainment sector Localization o US mass culture worked because target countries integrated it into local customs and practices o Example: West Germany Need to establish a sense of collectivity that did not draw on a nationalist rhetoric West Germans embrace the ideology of consumerism: “basic democratic right of consumer freedom” Localization: InnerGerman Cold War o East German officials and press attacked the influence of American popular culture on German youth o West Germans defensive about American culture in the early 1950’s o By the late 1950’s the west German government had embraced US consumer goods, using them to flaunt the openness of its political system Questions to consider o Identify the influence that US cold war culture had outside of the US o Is the export of US cold war culture onesided? Investigate processes of localization o To what extent can the US’s global status today be traced back to US cold war culture?
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