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Week 5 Notes

by: Katrina Salamon

Week 5 Notes HIST 0848-002

Katrina Salamon

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About this Document

These are the notes from week 5 of American Revolutions
American Revolutions
Silke Zoller
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 0848-002 at Temple University taught by Silke Zoller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see American Revolutions in History at Temple University.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
February 9, 2016 Questions:  Identify the main argument in Elaine Tyler May: o The nuclear family was a sort of epidemic that seriously affected both men and women.  The pressures on both parents was enormous, but women  seemed to face the brunt of the misery while still maintaining, in their  general summarization, that they would marry the same person and that  their lives had been happy on the whole. They were also put blame for  things on themselves.   Analyze the connection between cold war ideology and the American family o Containment, compartmentalization, specific roles.   Analyze the connection between cold war ideology and the role of women in U.S. society.  Reviews of Homeward Bound o Conformity: caused my McCarthyism, consumerism, and suburbanize.  o Religion: opposing the “godless” Soviet Union  Adapted into a consumerist society  Religion offered a sense of community  1958—church attendance peaks at 49% o Marriage: early marriage endorsed by experts and parents, ideal of a large  family, low rates of divorce o Baby boom: after decades of decline, birthrates rose again,   Cult of domesticity   Childcare is central to family life  Increasing professionalization of childcare advice  o Gender roles: distinction between sexes  “Based on nature” that should always be upheld o Consumerism and gender  Consumer society underscored the difference between the genders  Standards of beauty highlighted physiological differences between  men and women o Youth culture o Consumer society began catering to children  The number of Baby Boomer youths made them a force in  American society and economic purchasing power  Result was the development of a youth culture separate from the  world of adults  o Nonconformity  Condemns people who deviate from societal norms  Feminism is a neurological illness  “Crisis of masculinity”—men surrounded by females  become feminine  o Homosexuality  Massive mobilization of world war II creates a rich homosexual  culture   Psychiatrists had an increasing US bureaucracy redefine  homosexuality  Shift from criminalizing homosexual acts to criminalize  homosexual people February 11, 2016 Midterm  5 essay questions  Thesis and argument  80 minutes  Analyze Article:  Analyze the assumptions which the article makes about U.S. consumerism and the rest of the world o They look down on the Soviet society because they aren’t materialistic or  consumer­istic o They degrade Soviet women as lesser women because they work, don’t  wear clothes for fashion or put effort into their appearance.  “…she is, after all, a woman.  She would like to be pretty and have men pay her compliments.” o They talk about the soviet attitude towards consumerism as if it’s A.  completely foreign; B. completely goes against human nature, and C.  disgusting and in need of change.  A “Market Empire” th  In the 20  century, the United States was not only a political and military  hegemon, but also owned a market empire.  o Derived its impetus and instruments from the same revolution in mass  consumerism that was reshaping the lives of its own citizens o Focused on Europe (Voice of America (radio show for people under  German occupation in Europe), Marshall Plan) o Hard power (power with the use of military/force) vs. soft power (power  that didn’t require military power)  US vs. European Consumerism o For the United States to establish its legitimacy in consumerism, it had to  confront the cultural authority that the European region had accumulated o Focus on overturning Europe’s bourgeois civilization  Quantity (U.S.) over Quality (Europe)  US government programs o Information dissemination:  Fulbright Program, 1946  Cultural exchange program created through the “recycling” of US war materials left across the world. Those countries  that still have the war materials can keep it if they agree to  engage in the Fulbright program with the US.   United States Information Agency, 1953  Cultural clearing­house, US propaganda tool. Creates radio  programs, books, programs, etc. detailing the superiority of  American life.   CIA Covert Operations, 1947­  Congress for Cultural Freedom, 1950 o Goodwill tours: o  The US government sent musicians around the world to perform, in order  to build “friendships” and positive relationships between culture  US Jazz Musician Tours o Jazz musicians served to promote American culture while also presenting  to the world a more appealing image of American race relations o Cultural diplomacy in areas of the world where officials felt the US  needed to generate some additional good will (Middle East, Africa, Soviet  Union, Southeast Asia).   Foundations o Distinction between the state and private foundations often blurry o Often used in coordination with US intelligence agencies o Established the field of American studies in Europe  Promoted a sympathetic understanding of American culture and  political aims  Mass Culture o People worldwide consumed and imitated US goods o The success of American mass culture had much to do with the economics of the domestic American industry and entertainment sector  Localization o US mass culture worked because target countries integrated it into local  customs and practices o Example: West Germany  Need to establish a sense of collectivity that did not draw on a  nationalist rhetoric  West Germans embrace the ideology of consumerism: “basic  democratic right of consumer freedom”  Localization: Inner­German Cold War o East German officials and press attacked the influence of American  popular culture on German youth o West Germans defensive about American culture in the early 1950’s o By the late 1950’s the west German government had embraced US  consumer goods, using them to flaunt the openness of its political system  Questions to consider o Identify the influence that US cold war culture had outside of the US o Is the export of US cold war culture one­sided? Investigate processes of  localization o To what extent can the US’s global status today be traced back to US cold  war culture?


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