JSIS 201 Week 6 Notes
JSIS 201 Week 6 Notes JSIS 201
Popular in The Making of the 21st Century
Popular in International Studies
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Pollard on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JSIS 201 at University of Washington taught by Bachman, David in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see The Making of the 21st Century in International Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
China, the Korean War and the Vietnam Wars Why the Power of Communism in Asia? • Focus on downtrodden, poor, anti -imperialist • "Scientific", modern • It "worked" in the Soviet Union • Offered a model of progress (and a potential powerful all y) • Many elites in Asia collaborated with the Japanese, colonial powers Differences between Asian and European Communism • Primacy of the peasantry o In Asia, the de facto emphasis was not the working class, it was the peasantry. • Guerilla Warfare as path to p ower o Asymmetric conflict o Scattered, dispersed and motivated units. o This required a very decentralized method of leadership and conflict o Highly pragmatic o Used to try to build support for the Communist cause • Links to anti-colonialism, nationalism o Traditional elites had sided with the Japanese o This was a national liberation movement • "United Fronts" o Bring together a broad coalition • Not under Soviet control in most cases o The actions of Communist movements in Asia were not controlled by Moscow • Not really susceptible to nuclear threats (?) o Given the undeveloped nature of Asia (with the exception of Japan), the threat of the atomic bomb wasn't all that credible o The US nuclear threat probably wouldn't apply to the Chinese Communist Party. The Chinese Civil War • Background on the Communist Movement in China o 1927: 57,000 members of the Communist Party o Survivors, lead by Mao, retreated to rural areas o Gradually expanded influence o Long March: strategic retreat • China in World War II o China was the least prioritized sector for the US o The war ended in 1945. o Mao sent a unit to greet the Soviet army o US thinks a coalition government will lead to a strong Chinese government o Stalin wants a coalition government because it will be unstable and weak • The Chinese Civil War, 1946- 1949 o 1949: People's Republic of China is established o Mao talks about being a Soviet ally • The mess of US involvement in China, 1941 -1949 o US didn't fulfill promises, including promises of aid o Politically charged issue in the US o McCarthyism • Began to argue who sold out the Chinese nationalist • Hiding communists in the US government o PRC is hostile towards the US The Korean War and the Internationalization of the Cold War • Concerns about US power from China • Mao left China to visit the United Sta tes • Korean War as Civil War o Korea had been divided, Soviets occupied the north and US occupied the south. o Soviet style structures were replicated in Korea o People in Korea weren't happy with the idea of a divided Korea o Surprise launch attack on North Korea o The US appeals for a UN resolution to restore the peace • Granting Security Council intervention • North Korean troops are bombed • Korean War intensified Cold War movements Consequences of the Korean War • Asia became the "second theater" in the Cold War • China as peculiar great power o As a revolutionary power • China is seen by the US as a fundamental threat to peace o As an isolated power • Most US allies did not recognize the PRC • 1975: only 18 countries recognized the PRC • No Americans traveled to China o As an "irrational" power • Atomic bombs were paper tigers: Mao wasn't concerned/ threatened by an atomic war • He was willing to challenge the US o As a nuclear power • He launched China's own nuclear weapons program • 1974: China tested its first nuclear weapon • US "Hub and Spokes" Alliance System o A series of bilateral alliances with states and nations o It was not clear if the US could create a multilateral security system o US support for Chiang Kai -shek o In the 1950s, most people did not recognize the PRC • United States mobilization for the Cold War o View of Monolithic Communist Bloc o Maintained a military: 3.5 -4 million o We sold arms to our allies so they could play a larger role in their own defe se • US re-involvement in the Chinese Civil War o President Truman order US troops to patrol the Taiwan straight in order to neutralize it. o The Republic of China on Taiwan becomes our friend • Divided states (China, Korea, and soon Vietnam) o This re-involvement lead to the creation, along with East and West of Germany, divided states o These became the fault lines for the Cold War • US Brinksmanship, Massive Retaliation o Massive retaliation meant that at times, the US would use any and all weapons that it felt it wanted to, to end acts of aggression. o Strategy of brinksmanship: going straig ht up to the threshold of war: trying to get the other side to back down. o We came very close to a nuclear war. o The US perceived themselves as having the nuclear advantage. • Domino Theory o Eisenhower articulated the so called domino theory the fall of the nor thern part of Vietnam would be the first of a long row of dominos, and before you knew it, the rest of the world would be taken over by communism. • China as greater threat to US than Soviet Union in the 1960s? o China was perceived as a greater threat than th e Soviet Union o China becomes a more active threat because they are a nuclear power o The US began to build a national nuclear defense system in order to protect themselves from an irrational nuclear attack by China • Vietnam The Vietnam Wars • Vs. France o 1946-1954 o The French government was determined to regain control of its empire o Vietcong attacked some French bases o Series of encounters, terrorist activities… o France made its participation in NATO contingent on the US's involvement o The French had lost the war. • Vs. The US o The US obstructed the efforts for elections in both Vietnams and Laos, Cambodia o Heavy CIA involvement and covert activities o Increasing sectarian conflict: Vietnamese Buddhists and Vietnamese Catholics o Growing numbers of US military advisors inc reasingly involved with missions o 1964 Campaign: LBJ was responsible o The introduction of US ground forces didn't seem to make a difference • Lead to more US troops and bombing o The US didn't have a strategy as to how to get out of this war or how to end the w ar o Richard Nixon becomes US President: promises to deliver peace to Vietnam • He gradually began to withdraw US forces o Global involvement • Australian forces fought, South Korean units • Chinese and Russians provided support to the North Vietnamese o Early 1973: Peace Treaty was signed o The US pulls out but continues to provide economic and military assistance • Vs. Cambodia and China o 1971: extensive bombing in Laos o 3 dominos have fallen o War launched against Cambodia o Low level conflict between China and Vietnam o The UN would take over an create an independent Cambodia • The wars victimized all involved • From an instrumentalist perspective, the Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia was of great benefit to the human rights of the Cambodian people. The Illogic of US Strateg ies • Why, if US support decolonization, did it support French in Indo -China? o France participation in NATO was so important that they had leverage over the US. • Why fight in areas peripheral to US interests? o Domino Theory: we saw security as a collective thre at. o The US, then, has effectively no priorities; all places are now important. • Why fight so long, hard, and expensively? o This idea of reputation and credibility don't really matter in international relations. • Why did the US end up equating reformism, natio nalism, and communism? o Accusation of those of wanted reform to be equated with communism. • Did Asia matter to the Cold War? o Asia was not very important to the outcome of the Cold War. • Why did the Vietnamese fight so hard, so long, so expensively? o The power of the regime to force people into military service. Consequences of the Cold War in Asia • The "Greenhouse" in Japan o The US wrote the Japanese constitution. o For the most part, the constitution has remained unchanged, no amendments. o US denied sovereignty to Japan; they did not have the sovereign right to go to war. • Primacy of Security over Economics o Japan developed a unique style of economy o World's second largest economy o They were able to adapt to geo -political developments • South Korea and Taiwan as models o Two former colonies making a transition to less developed, rule, to becoming advanced, industrial societies. o They made transitions to democracy o Two outstanding success in development in the developing world. • Dictatorship over Democra cy • Perception of US relative decline o The US fought hard and they still lost. • The Cold War in Asia did promote US -China rapprochement The Failure of the Détente and the "New" Cold War Friday, February 12, 2016 2:55 PM Sources of Instability in the Global System • Problems in/with the US o Budget and trade issues (1960s). • The dollar and gold were essentially the same thing • Demanded "real" money • US dollar was so important to the system o The Vietnam War became increasingly popular (1960s) • Draft: 18 year old men • As US causalities heightened, middle and upper class families were looking out for their sons • Break out of protests o Civil Rights and Wrongs (1960s) • Civil rights were a dominant issue in American domestic politics • A series of riots in urban centers • A long period of civil disorder o Nixon and Watergate (1972 -1974) • Revelations pointed to Nixon as knowledgeable of it and covering it up. • As a result, there's a vacuum at the top of Washington DC. • Ending of Bretton Woods System o "Closing the Gold Window" (1971) • No longer a connection between gold and US dollars • From then, we did not change the dollar, it now flows o Moving to floating exchange rates • This can lead to financial crises • Vietnam and problems with the US military o Nixon Doctrine (1969) o Renewed détente with Soviets (1970 -1974) o Opening to China (1971) o Looking for powerful local allies (Iran) (1970s) • Japan's Rise o Japan began to become a major economic power o Held the Summer Olympics in 1964 • Rise of OPEC/oil issue o Oil supply kept up with demand • Extension of Cold War to Middle East, especially after 1967
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