PSC 1001; Origins of the Modern State
PSC 1001; Origins of the Modern State PSC 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleanor Parry on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Christopher Mitchell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Key Terms: Social Contract, stationary bandit, mass armies, modernization Modern State Ascendent • Modern state emerges in Europe in 17th and 18th centuries ◦ Pushed out other European forms ◦ Modern states the core of european colonial empires ◦ Rest of world conquered by Europeans or develops modern states • 20th century modern state develops Origins of Modern State • Origin of the State: ◦ Social Contract ◦ Stationary Bandit/Protection Racket • Origin of the Modern State: ◦ "War makes states and states make wars" - Charles Tilly ◦ Most effective forms survive ◦ Modern State most effective ◦ First in Western Europe then rest of world Why Western Europe? • Medieval Europe had many small varied state forms • Population Density and Anarchy • High and increasing population density ◦ Unlike Africa and Americas • Anarchy ◦ No central authority after the Fall of Rome ◦ Unlike China, India, Middle East • Result: Constant Warfare Result of Constant Warfare • Larger States do better than smaller ◦ Territorial Consolidation • More efficient states do better ◦ Centralization of control • Richer States do better ◦ Promotion of rational economic policy ◦ Expansion, sophistication of taxation policy • Mass armies do better ◦ Traditional states rely on mercenaries ◦ States with popular legitimacy can raise mass armies Legitimacy and Strength • Legitimate states can ask more of citizens ◦ Increased tax burden ◦ Increased compliance with laws ◦ Less expenditure on domestic coercion • Legitimate states can raise mass armies ◦ Pre 1800 small professional armies ◦ Feudal lords and mercenaries ◦ Napoleon Post Napoleonic Reforms • States need to raise own mass armies ◦ Therefore need popular legitimacy • Reformation of traditional states ◦ Attention to wider spectrum of population ◦ Shifts from subjects to citizens ◦ Mass suffrage ‣ Democracy ‣ Liberal Authoritarianism State Building Elsewhere • Settler Colonies ◦ America, South Africa, Australia ◦ Large number of Western Europeans settle ‣ Notices eliminated or assimilated ◦ Settlers bring bureaucratic-rational order ‣ Set up government following Western European Model ◦ Creating new modern states • Traditional Empires ◦ Asia ◦ States on the boundaries of Europe ◦ Organized on pre-modern lines ‣ Traditional legitimacy ‣ Bureaucracy, but not rational-legal organization • Resource Extraction colonies Imperial Transformation • Must become modern states to compete with Western Europe • Successful adaptation often painful ◦ Destroy tradition order and remake it • Those that don't adapt disappear State Building in Africa • Pre colonization Weak States • Colonization based on extortion ◦ Borders disregard ethnic divisions ◦ State structures built for extraction • Post colonization neo-patrimonialism ◦ New elites take over attractive structures ◦ No interstate warfare ◦ No incentive to transform into modern states ◦ Mimic the form, but not the function, of modern states. Spillover Effects from Failed States • Havens for crime and terrorism ◦ A problem for neighbors ◦ Increasingly a global problem • Human Rights abuses ◦ Military intervention in Somalia ◦ Refugees flooding into Europe today • Potential for new hostile regimes Challenges of State Building • States make wars and wars make states ◦ But interstate war rare ◦ Domestic conflict much more common ‣ Displace people, more human rights abuses • Is the solution for Africa to build states ◦ Or to move to an alternate model Globalization and the Modern States • Domestically focuses states poorly equipped to handle global challenges ◦ Economic interdependence ◦ Global warming ◦ Pandemics ◦ Rise of non state actors ‣ MNC and interest groups ‣ Terrorist networks and organized crime • Move to supranational governance ◦ Global organizations ◦ Region organizations
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