PSC 1001; Democracy and Democratization
PSC 1001; Democracy and Democratization PSC 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleanor Parry on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Christopher Mitchell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Minimal Definitions of Democracy • Democracy from Demos: the people ◦ Rule by the people • Robert Dahl ◦ Polyarchy: rule by the many • Democratic Republicanism ◦ Leaders selected by people Minimal v Expansive Definitions • Advantages of Minimal Definitions ◦ Avoid grouping all good things together ‣ Democracy doesn't go necessarily hand in hand with property rights social welfare personal liberties or other goods ◦ Easier to measure empirically ◦ Sidestep debates between social democracy liber democracy populist democracy • Advantages of Expansive Definition ◦ Minimal democracies may not look like what we think of as democracies ◦ Democracies may need civil liberties and political rights to work properly ◦ Can separate true democracies from authoritarian states mimicking the form of democracy Core Modern Definition • People choose who governs them through regular and competitive elections • Basic individual rights and freedoms are guaranteed Basic Rights and Freedoms • Political rights ◦ Rights of participation in selection of rules • Liberal Freedoms ◦ Limits on government control ◦ Freedom to allow public debate ◦ Protecting minority rights • Rule of Law ◦ Equality before the law ◦ Protection of Property rights • Economic Rights ◦ Core of social vs libertarian democracy divide Degrees of democracy: Freedom House Scores • Political rights ◦ Electoral process ◦ Political pluralism ◦ Functioning of government • Freedom of Expression Boundary Issues • Limits on political rights ◦ Limited suffrage ◦ Underrepresentation and under participation ◦ Restriction on Candidates • Limits of civil liberties ◦ Limiting voice of opposition ◦ tyranny of the majority Democratic Consolidation • Two components to strong democracy ◦ Democratic political system ◦ People who believe in democracy • Without both: Unconsolidated Democracy ◦ Democracy without democrats unstable ‣ Vulnerable to authoritarian challenges ‣ Winners may be unwilling to cede power later ‣ One person one vote one time • Do you need democrats before democracy? Preconditionalists vs Universalists • IS democracy a universal value? • Or a cultural product? ◦ With islam? ◦ Cultural affinity for authoritarianism Democracy Before Democrats? • Multi-generational model • Gen1 - Democracy as 2nd best ◦ Two sides can't defeat teach other ◦ Settle on democracy to end conflict • Gen 2, 3 - Democratic Values ◦ Raised in Democratic system ◦ Value democracy as end in itself ◦ Now democracy is consolidated Economic Preconditions • Does democracy require development or other way around ◦ Clear correlation but what causation • Economic development promoting democracy ◦ Growing pie ‣ Easing distributional conflicts ◦ Stabilizer of regimes ◦ Middle Class • Democracy promoting economic development ◦ Complex economy requires responsive government ◦ Democracies produce greater stability and rule of law ‣ Make policy in public interest, not private ‣ Address mass public concern • No famines • Democracy or development? ◦ Latin americans tried democracy first ◦ East asian promoted development ◦ If state is too weak, neither matters much Models of Democracy • Requires domestic support for democratization • Bridging ◦ Pacted transition ‣ Retain order ‣ Smooth transition ◦ But retail pockets of authoritarianism ‣ Military control ‣ Human right abuses ‣ Enclave of authoritarian rule • Breaking ◦ Post communist model ◦ Shock Treatment ‣ Remove authoritarian elements ‣ Break power of old elites ◦ Tremendously difficult ‣ Remove old technocrats in military and bureaucracy ‣ Chaos creates nostalgia for authoritarian rule
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