PSC 1001; Authoritarianism
PSC 1001; Authoritarianism PSC 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleanor Parry on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Christopher Mitchell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Totalitarianism • Defined by relationship to civil society ◦ May be party state, theocracy • Goal is not just obedience, but mobilization in support ◦ Climate all social and political pluralism ◦ Promote a totalizing utopian ideology ◦ To that end, significant repression • Not enough to over: must want to obey ◦ Parades rallies, on massive scale Totalitarian Ideologies • Communism ◦ Global utopian vision ◦ Based on logic of economic justice • Fascism ◦ National utopian vision ◦ Based on radical rejection of modernity ◦ Social Darwinist view of national conflict • Islamofascism ◦ Goal of restoration of the Caliphate ◦ Anti-modern but not nationalist Neo-Patriomialism • Personalistic rule ◦ Spoils of office used to maintain power ◦ Clan/TRibes deliver goods to members ◦ No divide between public authority and private power • Bureaucracy not autonomous ◦ Doesn't allow pre-determined rules ◦ Not meritocratic ◦ Clientelism widespread • Based in resource extraction ◦ Africa, Middle East, South America The resource curse • Natural resources = Free Money • Less need to tax population ◦ No taxation, no need for representation • Resources to build up security forces, military • Raises stakes for political control Military Rule • Rule by armed forces ◦ Usually step in to maintain domestic order or to enhance national defense • Military Advantages: ◦ Already have guns and organization ◦ Widely Respected ◦ Can take and hold power more easily than others • Disadvantage: Legitimacy concerns Bureaucratic Authoritarianism • A subtype of military rule • Rule by technocrats ◦ Military maintains power ◦ Policy experts create policy in national interest ◦ Focus on economic modernization and performance legitimacy • Latin american military stats • East Asian developmental state Party Rule • Combination of repression and mobilization ◦ Party includes true believers ◦ Party also route to social advancement ◦ Party, not state, where decisions are made ‣ Parallel state in party • Totalitarian Versions ◦ Communist, fascist party states • Non totalitarian versions ◦ Mexico under the PRI Competitive Authoritarianism • System has democratic elements • Uneven playing field ◦ Restrictions on civil liberties ◦ Rigged or limited elections • Opposition can never hope to take power The Two transition test • Mexico, japan india in the 20th century ◦ All formally democracies ◦ But only one party in power for decades • Real democracies or the perfect dictatorship ◦ Opposition party takes power ◦ Opposition Party cedes power Why Fake a Democracy? • Domestic legitimacy ◦ Popular mobilization for ruling party ◦ Pressure valve for opposition ◦ Extent of fraud may not be clear/sufficient • International Legitimacy ◦ Democracy the only game in town ◦ Fig leaf of elections • A stalled transition ◦ Inevitable slide one way or another\ ◦ Or a stable equilibrium Version 1 - Formal limits on liberal democracy • System works as intended ◦ Has real mostly unrigged elections & Rule of Law ◦ But system is not democratic enough • Democratic elements may be too weak ◦ Suffrage may be limited ◦ Formal power of elected officials limited ◦ Imperial Germany, Iran • Liberal elements may be too weak ◦ Elected leaders have unchecked powers ◦ Tyranny of the majority/illiberal democracy Version 2 - Informal Limits on Democracy • Formally a liberal democracy ◦ But rules subverted in practice • Subverted elections ◦ Opposition harassed or restricted ◦ Voters intimidated or barred from voting ◦ Wide-spread vote-buying • Only outcome will be tolerated ◦ Military will block some party from victory • Examples ◦ Mexico, Turkey, Chile ◦ Russia, Zimbabwe
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