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Chapter 5

by: Taylor Notetaker

Chapter 5 BSC 108

Taylor Notetaker
Troy University
GPA 3.8

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The working cell chapter 5
Introductory Biology for Non Majors
christine yates
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by christine yates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Non Majors in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Chapter 5 The Working Cell  Energy­ the capacity to perform work, can be changed from one form to another but it can not  be destroyed or created, this is called the “First Law of Thermodynamics” Entropy­ a measure of disorder or randomness (all energy conversions increase the entropy of  the universe) Chemical energy­ a form of potential energy found in food, gasoline, and other fuels. Living  cells and automobile engines use the process to make chemical energy  Calories­ the amount of energy that raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree  celsius  A food calorie­ is actually a kilocalories (one thousand calories) The Calories in food  Foods with the most Carbon­Hydrogen bonds  1. Store the most potential energy 2. Have the most calories  3. Make the most ATP  Cellular Respiration­the energy releasing breakdown of fuel molecules. This provides energy  for the cell to work.  ATP­ stands for adenosine Triphosphate (three phosphates) ADP­ stands for adenosine Diphosphate (two phosphates) The ATP cycle or energy coupling ● Cellular respiration depends on ATP ● ATP is recycled from ADP and phosphate through cellular respiration  ● Ex) when moving a muscle  Enzymes  ● Metabolism­ is the amount of all chemical reactions that occur in organisms  Activation Energy ● The amount of energy needed to make your body work  ● It triggers the chemical reactions to continue  ● Enzymes lower the activation energy process  Induced Fit  ● Each enzyme is very selective (ex. sucrase only works on sucrose) ● The active site fits to the substrate and the enzyme changes its shape which is  called induced fit  ● Enzymes function over and over again (this is a key characteristic of enzymes)  Enzyme inhibitors  ● Can inhibit metabolic reactions  Way they Work  1. They bind to the active site as substance imposters  2. They bind to  a remote site, changing the shape of the enzyme  Passive Transport  Diffusion­one result of movement of molecules ( doesn’t require ATP), and molecules  spread into available space  Equilibrium­ the equal amount of molecules on both sides of the plasma membrane  Facilitated diffusion­ transport of substances by specific transport proteins, still no energy  needed  Osmosis­ passive transport of water molecules across the plasma membrane, no energy  needed  Hypotonic solutions­ lower concentration of solute as compared to equilibrium  Hypertonic solutions­ higher concentration of solute as compared to equilibrium  Isotonic solutions­ equal concentration of solute  Water balance in animals  ● cell survival depends on it ability to balance water uptake and loss  Animal Cell (Red Blood Cell) 1. isotonic­ normal  2. hypertonic­shriveled 3. hypotonic ­bloating  Plant Cell  ● Isotonic­wilted  ● Hypertonic­shriveled  ● Hypotonic­ normal  Osmoregulation­controls the water balance in animals  Water Balance in plants  ● They are at the mercy of the environment  ● They have rigid cell wall  Active Transport  ● requires energy to move molecules across the plasma membrane (needs ATP) Exocytosis­ secrete substances from inside the cell to outside of the cell (requires energy) Endocytosis­ takes materials into the cell (requires energy) Receptor­mediated endocytosis­ triggered by the binding of external molecules to membrane  proteins  Signal transduction pathway­ consists of proteins and other molecules relay the signals 


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