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General Biology notes week 5-EBIO 1220

by: Evan Gallagher

General Biology notes week 5-EBIO 1220 EBIO 1220

Marketplace > University of Colorado > Science > EBIO 1220 > General Biology notes week 5 EBIO 1220
Evan Gallagher
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

In the fifth week of notes for general Biology 2, subjects covered include the end of animal diversity, and the introduction to homeostasis and tissues.
General Biology 2
Dr. Carol Kearns
Class Notes
general biology, EBIO 1220, tissues, homeostasis
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Evan Gallagher on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1220 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Carol Kearns in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Science at University of Colorado.


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Date Created: 02/12/16
Post­First test: Animal diversity Amphibian­ literally means “both ways of life” referring to the metamorphosis of an  aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult Most amphibians have moist skin that compliments the lungs in gas exchange fertilization is external in most species,, and the eggs require a moist environment  Characteristics: usually lack claws moist skin respiration through skin and gills  undergoes metamorphosis from aquatic juvenile to terrestrial adult must lay eggs in water  adult must return to water to reproduce external fertilization double circulation 2/12- Amniotes amniotes are named for the major derived character of the clade, the amniotic egg,  which contains membranes that protect the embryo  Four layers of the egg: Amniotic membrane­ cushions and keeps moist chorion­ gas exchange  yolk sac­ nutrition  allantois­ waste storage Reptiles This includes the tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs  Features: Reptiles have scales that create a water proof barrier  they lay shelled eggs on land­ an amniotic egg internal fertilization lungs­ no respiration through skin due to a lack of gills  more effective heart than amphibians  kidney specialized to conserve water  more erect posture than amphibians  claws and teeth  Homodont dentition­ meaning they have the same type of teeth throughout their mouth Internal fertilization  Birds still in the reptile group Features:  Feathers  Hallow bones­ this makes them light weight internal air sacs in addition to lungs­ light weight  Reduced organs­ To keep them light, they only have one kidney, ovary, reproductive  organs shrink during non mating seasons­ light weight is essential  well developed nervous system  endothermic­ allows for rapid movement, flight; rapid delivery of oxygen to tisses specialized beaks and feet in relation to the type of food they eat  Mammals there are 5,300 species of mammals  Features:  mammary glands which produce milk long periods of parental care  hair a larger brain compared to body size  differentiated teeth endothermic  diaphragm for breathing  Chapter 32­ homeostasis and tissues  Tissue structure and function­ different tissues have fife rent structures that are suited to their functions tissues are classified into four main categories: Epithelial tissues­ covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the  body It contains cells that are closely joined  Connective tissue­ Mainly binds and supports other tissues  it contains sparsely packed cells scattered through an extensive extracellular matrix  the matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation There are three kinds of connective tissues fiver all made of protein­ collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length reticular fibers join connective tosses to adjacent tissues  connective tusse also contain cells  Six major types of connective tissue: 1. loose connective tissue­ binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place 2. cartilage is a strong and flexible support material  3. fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons, which attach muscles to bones 4. adipose tissue stores fat for isolation and fuel 5. blood is composed of blood cells and cell fragments in liquid blood plasma 6. bone is generalized and forms the skeleton Muscle tissue­ consists of long cells called muscle fibers, which contract in response to nerve  signals it is divided in to vertebrate body into three types  Skeletal muscle­ striated muscle is responsible for voluntary movement  smooth muscle is responsible for involuntary movement  cardiac muscle is responsible for contraction of the heart Nervous tissue ­senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal Nervous tissue contains neurons, were cells that transmit nerve pulses, and flail cells that help  nourish and insulate and replenish neurons 


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