General Biology notes week 5-EBIO 1220
General Biology notes week 5-EBIO 1220 EBIO 1220
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Evan Gallagher on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1220 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Carol Kearns in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Science at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
PostFirst test: Animal diversity Amphibian literally means “both ways of life” referring to the metamorphosis of an aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult Most amphibians have moist skin that compliments the lungs in gas exchange fertilization is external in most species,, and the eggs require a moist environment Characteristics: usually lack claws moist skin respiration through skin and gills undergoes metamorphosis from aquatic juvenile to terrestrial adult must lay eggs in water adult must return to water to reproduce external fertilization double circulation 2/12- Amniotes amniotes are named for the major derived character of the clade, the amniotic egg, which contains membranes that protect the embryo Four layers of the egg: Amniotic membrane cushions and keeps moist chorion gas exchange yolk sac nutrition allantois waste storage Reptiles This includes the tuataras, lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs Features: Reptiles have scales that create a water proof barrier they lay shelled eggs on land an amniotic egg internal fertilization lungs no respiration through skin due to a lack of gills more effective heart than amphibians kidney specialized to conserve water more erect posture than amphibians claws and teeth Homodont dentition meaning they have the same type of teeth throughout their mouth Internal fertilization Birds still in the reptile group Features: Feathers Hallow bones this makes them light weight internal air sacs in addition to lungs light weight Reduced organs To keep them light, they only have one kidney, ovary, reproductive organs shrink during non mating seasons light weight is essential well developed nervous system endothermic allows for rapid movement, flight; rapid delivery of oxygen to tisses specialized beaks and feet in relation to the type of food they eat Mammals there are 5,300 species of mammals Features: mammary glands which produce milk long periods of parental care hair a larger brain compared to body size differentiated teeth endothermic diaphragm for breathing Chapter 32 homeostasis and tissues Tissue structure and function different tissues have fife rent structures that are suited to their functions tissues are classified into four main categories: Epithelial tissues covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body It contains cells that are closely joined Connective tissue Mainly binds and supports other tissues it contains sparsely packed cells scattered through an extensive extracellular matrix the matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation There are three kinds of connective tissues fiver all made of protein collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length reticular fibers join connective tosses to adjacent tissues connective tusse also contain cells Six major types of connective tissue: 1. loose connective tissue binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place 2. cartilage is a strong and flexible support material 3. fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons, which attach muscles to bones 4. adipose tissue stores fat for isolation and fuel 5. blood is composed of blood cells and cell fragments in liquid blood plasma 6. bone is generalized and forms the skeleton Muscle tissue consists of long cells called muscle fibers, which contract in response to nerve signals it is divided in to vertebrate body into three types Skeletal muscle striated muscle is responsible for voluntary movement smooth muscle is responsible for involuntary movement cardiac muscle is responsible for contraction of the heart Nervous tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal Nervous tissue contains neurons, were cells that transmit nerve pulses, and flail cells that help nourish and insulate and replenish neurons
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