Intro Zoo week 4 notes
Intro Zoo week 4 notes BIOL 1114, 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 02/12/16
Week 4 notes Cell membrane structure Cellular respiration c6h1206 (glucose) + 602 = 6CO2 + 6H20 + 26 ATP (energy) Membranes create compartments Endomembrane system= nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondrial membranes, cell membrane, cytoplasm Outer membrane, inter-membrane space*(critical for maintenance of chemical gradient as form of potential energy), outer membrane Transmembrane proteins can be selective transporters: -carrier proteins -channel proteins (aquaporin) -gated channels*(unit 2, neurobiology) Concentration Gradient = potential energy *Understand factors that determine permeability of solutes: affect permeability: polarity, charge, size simple diffusion Molecules diffuse from high to low concentrations (concentration gradient high to low) until equilibrium is reached (equal distribution = no concentration gradient; move randomly throughout, so to remain equal) CG are a form of potential energy… high concentration has high PE, low concentration has low PE. PE can be harnessed to do work, molecules moving through membranes will create ATP Membrane transport Passive transport: simple diffusion- (solute) does not require ATP; substance moves across without help of proteins facilitated diffusion- (solute) requires the help of transmembrane proteins; movement of impermeable solutes down their concentration gradients, does not require ATP osmosis (water) - diffusion of H20 molecules, does not require ATP Powered by high concentration gradients, naturally moving down gradients; “water follows solutes” Iso= same healthy cell Hypo=lower expanding cell Hyper=higher shrinking cell Tonicity= concentration (# of solutes) Active transport: uses energy, not necessarily in form of ATP Net movement against concentration gradient, requires transport protein and energy input often from ATP Can go up (against) concentration gradient Can be used to create concentration gradients Example: sodium-potassium pump requires ATP, energy is used to create a gradient fig 4.19 ADP+P ATP What about bulk transportation? Vesicular transport Endocytosis: inward cell action; particles gathers outside, make way through membrane and is enclosed in its own vesicle membrane inside the cell; requires ATP; OUTIN Exocytosis: outward cell action; vesicle surrounds particles to be exported, vesicle moves to membrane, is pushed outward by membranes being fused and particles flow freely outside of cell; INOUT Cellular Respiration: Focus on mitochondria of cell Most energy transfer happens in oxidationreduction reactions (redox) Cellular respiration in a nutshell: glycolysis (1 glucose to 2 pyruvate)gives off 2 ATP krebs cycle electron transport chain: cristae, matrix, cytoplasm, intermembrane space holds PE chemical gradient Electron Transport Chain: inside intermembrane space of mitochondria Transporter Proteins are physically imbedded in inner membrane of mitochondria NADH, FADH deliver H+ protons to proteins which are taken through the chain and attach to oxygen to form H2O Purpose of Oxygen atoms= accept the hydrogen atoms Powering ATPsynthase complex= hydrogen Oxidized: NAD & FAD Reduced: NADH & FADH2 Cellular respiration in a nutshell: 1. Breathe in oxygen 2. Break down polymers into glucose 3. Feed sugar and O2 to cells 4. Split glucose into 2 molecules and “strip” energy (glycolysis oxidizing) Requires oxygen= aerobic respiration 5. Pass on products to mitochondria 6. Strip more energy (Krebs cycle) 7. NADH/FADH2 energize transmembrane proteins (active transport) 8. Increases concentration of H+ in the intermembrane space 9. ATPsynthase harnesses concentration gradient to make ATP Glycolysis: ANAEROBIC 1. Split one glucose into 2 separate molecules 2. Strip electrons (energy) via redox reactions 3. Make a little ATP in the process Does not require oxygen = anaerobic respiration 4. In presence of oxygen, pass on final products to mitochondria (2 pyruvate, 2 NADH) Krebs cycle: ANAEROBIC, but must be linked to aerobic processes 1. Strip electrons (energy) via redox reactions 2. Make a little ATP in the process 3. Pass on final products to the electron transport chain (8 NADH, 2 FADH2) Going in: single glucose molecule Going out: 2 pyruvate and 2 NADH and ATP **Understand that enzymes are doing the work to convert, no need to memorize all the chemical names Enzymes are proteins, they do the conversions of glucose to pyruvate Number of NAD molecules limited in cell, in absence of oxygen, lactic acid or lactate is made; NADH is made back into NAD Step 2: transition step occurs in matrix (step 0 of kreb cycle) In the presence of oxygen, Inout: 2 pyruvate Output: 2 acetyl CoA, 2 co2, 2 NADH Step 3: Krebs cycle Input 2 acetyl CoA Output 4 co2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2 ENZYMES ARE DOING ALL THE WORK Oxaloacetate combines with acetyl CoA to form citrate citric acid cycle Specific enzyme for each step Figure 6.6 Theoretical yield: 36 ATP Glycoysis2 ATP transition step no ATP krebs cycle 2 ATP electron transport 34 ATP membranes are slightly leaky to H+ protons rest of energy is in ADP, needs to go through active transport system in electron transport chain energized proteins pump H+ against the concentration gradient Conversion rates: 1 NADH 3 ATP 1 FASH 2 ATP Chemiosmotic phosphorylation: harnessing power of chemical gradient to produce ATP Proteins and fats can enter at multiple steps: Betaoxidation The energy circle of life: Outputs of photosynthesis are inputs to cellular respiration and vice versa.
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