New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro Zoo week 4 notes

by: Hannah Kirby

Intro Zoo week 4 notes BIOL 1114, 001

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > BIOL 1114, 001 > Intro Zoo week 4 notes
Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Last week of notes before test 1. Concepts from chapter 3,4,6
Intro to zoology
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Intro to zoology

Popular in Department

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Friday February 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.


Reviews for Intro Zoo week 4 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/12/16
Week 4 notes Cell membrane structure Cellular respiration  c6h1206 (glucose) + 602 = 6CO2 + 6H20 + 26 ATP (energy) Membranes create compartments Endomembrane system= nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondrial membranes, cell membrane, cytoplasm Outer membrane, inter-membrane space*(critical for maintenance of chemical gradient as form of potential energy), outer membrane Transmembrane proteins can be selective transporters: -carrier proteins -channel proteins (aquaporin) -gated channels*(unit 2, neurobiology) Concentration Gradient = potential energy *Understand factors that determine permeability of solutes: affect permeability: polarity, charge, size simple diffusion Molecules diffuse from high to low concentrations (concentration gradient high to low) until equilibrium is reached (equal distribution = no concentration gradient; move randomly throughout, so to remain equal) CG are a form of potential energy… high concentration has high PE, low concentration has low PE. PE can be harnessed to do work, molecules moving through membranes will create ATP Membrane transport Passive transport: simple diffusion- (solute) does not require ATP; substance moves across without help of proteins facilitated diffusion- (solute) requires the help of transmembrane proteins; movement of impermeable solutes down their concentration gradients, does not require ATP osmosis (water) - diffusion of H20 molecules, does not require ATP Powered by high concentration gradients, naturally moving down gradients; “water follows solutes” Iso= same healthy cell Hypo=lower expanding cell Hyper=higher shrinking cell Tonicity= concentration (# of solutes) Active transport: uses energy, not necessarily in form of ATP Net movement against concentration gradient, requires transport protein and energy input often from ATP Can go up (against) concentration gradient Can be used to create concentration gradients Example: sodium-potassium pump requires ATP, energy is used to create a gradient fig 4.19 ADP+P  ATP What about bulk transportation? Vesicular transport  Endocytosis: inward cell action; particles gathers outside, make way through membrane and is enclosed in its own vesicle membrane inside the cell; requires ATP; OUTIN  Exocytosis: outward cell action; vesicle surrounds particles to be exported, vesicle moves to membrane, is pushed outward by membranes being fused and particles flow freely outside of cell; INOUT Cellular Respiration:  Focus on mitochondria of cell Most energy transfer happens in oxidation­reduction reactions (redox) Cellular respiration in a nutshell:  glycolysis (1 glucose to 2 pyruvate)gives off 2 ATP krebs cycle electron transport chain: cristae, matrix, cytoplasm, intermembrane space holds PE chemical gradient Electron Transport Chain: inside intermembrane space of mitochondria  Transporter Proteins are physically imbedded in inner membrane of mitochondria  NADH, FADH deliver H+ protons to proteins which are taken through the chain and attach to oxygen to  form H2O Purpose of Oxygen atoms= accept the hydrogen atoms Powering ATP­synthase complex= hydrogen Oxidized: NAD & FAD Reduced: NADH & FADH2 Cellular respiration in a nutshell: 1. Breathe in oxygen 2. Break down polymers into glucose 3. Feed sugar and O2 to cells 4. Split glucose into 2 molecules and “strip” energy (glycolysis­ oxidizing)  Requires oxygen= aerobic respiration 5. Pass on products to mitochondria  6. Strip more energy (Krebs cycle) 7. NADH/FADH2 energize transmembrane proteins (active transport) 8. Increases concentration of H+ in the intermembrane space  9. ATP­synthase harnesses concentration gradient to make ATP  Glycolysis: ANAEROBIC 1. Split one glucose into 2 separate molecules 2. Strip electrons (energy) via redox reactions 3. Make a little ATP in the process Does not require oxygen = anaerobic respiration  4. In presence of oxygen, pass on final products to mitochondria (2 pyruvate, 2 NADH) Krebs cycle: ANAEROBIC, but must be linked to aerobic processes 1. Strip electrons (energy) via redox reactions 2. Make a little ATP in the process 3. Pass on final products to the electron transport chain (8 NADH, 2 FADH2) Going in: single glucose molecule Going out: 2 pyruvate and 2 NADH and ATP **Understand that enzymes are doing the work to convert, no need to memorize all the chemical names Enzymes are proteins, they do the conversions of glucose to pyruvate  Number of NAD molecules limited in cell, in absence of oxygen, lactic acid or lactate is made; NADH is  made back into NAD Step 2: transition step occurs in matrix (step 0 of kreb cycle) In the presence of oxygen,  Inout: 2 pyruvate Output: 2 acetyl CoA, 2 co2, 2 NADH  Step 3: Krebs cycle Input 2 acetyl CoA Output 4 co2, 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2 ENZYMES ARE DOING ALL THE WORK Oxaloacetate combines with acetyl CoA to form citrate citric acid cycle Specific enzyme for each step Figure 6.6 Theoretical yield: 36 ATP Glycoysis­2 ATP  transition step­ no ATP krebs cycle 2 ATP electron transport 34 ATP membranes are slightly leaky to H+ protons rest of energy is in ADP, needs to go through active transport system in electron transport chain energized proteins pump H+ against the concentration gradient  Conversion rates: 1 NADH  3 ATP 1 FASH  2 ATP Chemiosmotic phosphorylation: harnessing power of chemical gradient to produce ATP  Proteins and fats can enter at multiple steps: Beta­oxidation  The energy circle of life:  Outputs of photosynthesis are inputs to cellular respiration and vice versa.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.